Culvert Design

·    Abt, Steven R., Donnell, Charles A., Ruff, James F., and Doehring, Frederick K.  1985.  Culvert slope and shape effects on outlet scourTransportation Research Record.  1017:24-30.

Abstract
:  Contained in this report are results of a flume study that was conducted to evaluate the effects culvert shape and slope have on outlet scour after 316 minutes of testing. A circular culvert was tested at 0, 2, and 5 percent slopes. The scour hole characteristics of depth, width, length, and volume were correlated to the discharge intensity for each slope. The results indicated that an increase in slope subsequently increased the dimensions of scour. The culvert slope significantly affected the scour volume estimates based on prediction equations currently in practice. Tests of circular, square, arch, and rectangular culverts were made with full flow for 316 minutes. The maximum depth, width, length, and volume of scour were correlated to a modified discharge intensity for each culvert shape. Relationships were derived for predicting outlet scour for each culvert shape. Composite representations were compiled that correlate the dimensions of scour to the modified discharge intensity independent of culvert shape. The results indicate that culvert shape has a limited effect on outlet scour. (A)

Keywords:
culvert design; flume study; scour; culvert outlet; culvert

 

·    Anderson, Lynette and Bryant, Mason D.  1980.  Fish passage at road crossings: an annotated bibliography.

Abstract
: A report of special interest to fishery biologists, resource managers, hydrologists, and road engineers, this bibliography lists publications pertinent to road crossings of salmon and trout streams. Topics include bridge and culvert installation, design criteria, mechanics, hydraulics, and economics, as well as their biological effects.

Keywords
: culvert design; bridge design; fish passage; drainage crossing; fishway; bibliography; annotated bibliography; salmon; trout; hydrology; resource manager; road engineer; road crossing; fish passage; culvert installation; culvert; bridge; bridge installation; culvert design criteria; culvert mechanics; culvert hydraulics; culvert economics; biological effect; fish habitat; habitat; forest engineering; road

 

·    Anonymous.  1995.  Forest road engineering guidebook (Forest practices code of British Columbia).  Province of British Columbia: British Columbia, Ministry of Forests and BC Environment.  153 pages. 

Abstract
: The Guidebook provides current information and recommended procedures for   designing, building, and maintaining forest roads. It is aimed at users who are already   capable of carrying out the technical operations related to road engineering, but who   require guidance on how to meet the requirements of the Forest Practices Code of British   Columbia Act and regulations. Culvert related topics include site data requirements for   minor stream culverts and site surveys for bridges and major culverts. Culvert design for   corrugated steel and corrugated polyethylene pipes include assessment of appropriate   materials for a specific site, sizing, and installation. Advantages and disadvantages of   each material, types of couplers, choices for headwalls, backfilling and compaction   procedures are discussed. In addition, log culvert design criteria and installation practices   are given in detail.  Culverts addressed here have a design discharge of less than 6 m3 per second and a   diameter of less than 2000 mm. Culverts larger than this need a professional design. For   forest road construction it is recommended that unless soil and runoff conditions require   increased sizes, minimum pipe culvert diameter sizes should be 400 mm east of the   Cascade Mountains and 600 mm west of the Cascade Mountains, and a minimum opening   size for log culverts should be 0.5 m in depth and 1.5 m in width. Options for determining   flow quantities for stream culverts at a recurrence interval of 100 years to provide a   benchmark of relative risk to be attached to stream culverts for the passage of stream flow   include procedures for determining Q100 from site information.   Additional road design and construction topics covered in the Guidebook include road   alignment, clearing widths, design specifications, site preparation, ditch construction, ford   design and construction, inspection, maintenance, and shutdown indicators. Procedures   for field identification of soils cover types of soils, size, consistency, density, and   compressibility.

Keywords
: guidebook; forest road; road; forest road maintenance; culvert; road engineering; culvert design; stream; stream culvert; installation; headwall; backfilling; compaction procedure; culvert design criteria; design discharge; pipe culvert; runoff; stream flow; flow; 100-year recurrence interval; construction; road alignment; clearing width; shutdown indicator; soil; cover type; density; compressibility; inspection

 

·   Anonymous.  1999.  Concrete Buried-Arch System Can Be Set Up QuicklyCivil Engineering .  69(5):32.

Abstract
:  Concrete buried-arch system can be set up quickly.

Keywords:
culvert

 

·    Ashton, W. S.  and Carlson, R. F.  1984.  Determination of seasonal, frequency and durational aspects of streamflow with regard to fish passage through roadway drainage structures.  Fairbanks, Alaska.  Institute of Water Resources, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 99701.:  51 pages.

Abstract
: Optimal design of culverts for fish passage for each stream crossing requires the   magnitude, duration, frequency and seasonal relationship of the flow and the timing of fish   movement. Although previous studies have measured fish swimming abilities and culvert   water velocity profiles, there are limited studies in northern regions of the hydrologic   relationship among magnitude, duration, frequency and season of discharge for the design   of culverts for fish passage. We analyzed streamflow records from 33 gaging stations in   south-central, western, interior, and arctic Alaska (from watershed with a drainage area   less than 100 mi.2 each) to determine the highest consecutive mean discharge with one-,   three-, seven-, and fifteen-day durations, and the lowest consecutive mean discharge with   three-, seven-, fourteen-, and thirty day-durations. Streamflow during three seasons were   analyzed: spring, April 1 to June 30; summer, July 1 to August 31; and fall, September 1 to   November 30. The log normal distribution, using the Blom plotting position formula, was   used to estimate flows at recurrence intervals of 1.25, 2, 5, 10, and 20 years. Multiple   linear regression equations were developed to predict flows from ungaged watersheds.   Significant basin and climatic characteristics for high flows were drainage area, mean   annual precipitation and percent of the drainage basin with forest cover. Significant   characteristics at low flows were drainage area, mean minimum January temperature,   mean annual precipitation and percent of drainage basin covered by forests. This report   provides the culvert designer with equations to predict flows, other than the instantaneous   peak flow, for use in designing culverts for fish passage. Two example problems are given   to show the application of these equations. (Author's abstract).

Keywords
: fish passage; seasonal streamflow; roadway drainage structure; roadway drainage; discharge; culvert; culvert passage; stream; stream crossing; magnitude of streamflow; duration of streamflow; frequency of streamflow; fish swimming ability; swimming ability; gaging station; Alaska; United States; watershed; drainage area; low flow; drainage basin; temperature; precipitation; culvert design; instantaneous peak flow; regional ; hydrology

 

·    Aust, W. Michael, Visser, Rien, Gallagher, Tom, Roberts, Tal, and Poirot, Matt.  2003.  Cost of Six Different Stream Crossing Options in the Appalachian AreaSouthern Journal of Applied Forestry.  27(1):66-70.

Abstract
Permanent and temporary forest bridges are an integral part of achieving environmental Best Management Practices (BMPs) for harvesting operations. Within Virginia Techís Fishburn Forest, five stream crossings have been installed to improve access and to provide a demonstration area for continuing education purposes. Approximately 1 mile of abandoned road was re-opened and improved, and 850 tons of gravel used to form the new running surface. In addition to a number of existing fords, three new culvert crossings and five new bridges were installed. These include a 70 ft low-water concrete culvert crossing, a two-span 31 ft wooden stringer bridge, and three different types of stress-laminated bridges. This article provides basic information regarding permit acquisition and environmental considerations for stream crossings. Location, design, and installation procedures for a variety of permanent and temporary forest bridges are presented. Finally, an evaluation of bridge installation costs, including materials, labor, and machinery requirements, are shown for the various permanent and temporary crossing types. (Authorís Abstract)
Keywords:
Best Management Practices (BMSs); stream crossings; harvesting; culvert; bridge; cost ; road; analysis and assessment

 

·    Barber, M. E.  and Downs, R. C.  1996.  Investigation of culvert hydraulics related to juvenile fish passage.  Pullman, WA.  Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), Washington State University.   Final Technical Report.

Abstract
: Culverts often create barriers to the upstream migration of juvenile fish. Fish will not travel upstream under high water velocity conditions. It is hypothesized that low velocity regions exist near culvert boundaries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine hydraulic characteristics of culverts with different flow conditions. Methods of predicting flow profiles were developed by both Chiu and Mountjoy. Two equations were compared to experimental results. The Mountjoy equation proved to yield better results for velocity profile predictions. An area of flow corresponding to a predetermined allowable velocity can be calculated using the Mountjoy equation. This can then be used in the design of culverts as fish passage guidelines. The following technical report contains a detailed description of background information, experimental methodology, the results of experimental tests, and an analysis of both the Chiu and Mountjoy equations. (A)

Keywords
: culvert design; fish passage; hydraulics; research methodology; behavior; culvert

 

·    Bartos, Louis R.  1978.  Peak flow hydrology in relation to bridge and culvert design problems in southeast Alaska.  Atlanta, GA.

Abstract
: An overview of geomorphologic, soils, vegetation, and precipitation in southeastern Alaska which set the stage for large streamflow amplitudes. Strong relationships of drainage geometry and peak flow events enabled development of sound hydrologic design techniques for bridges and culverts on forest roads for southeastern Alaska conditions. Passage of extreme peak flow events, structural safety, and maintenance of optimum passage for anadromous fish at low flows were adequately achieved through hydrologic design. (A)

Keywords
: hydrology; bridge design; culvert design; regional; culvert; road

 

·    Bates, K, Barnard, R., Heiner, B., Klavas, P., and Powers, P.  1999.  Fish passage design at road culverts: a design manual for fish passage at road crossings.  Olympia, WA.  Washington Department of Habitat and Lands Program, Environmental Engineering Division. 

Abstract
: This manual is for the design of permanent new, retrofit, or replacement road  crossing culverts that will not block the migration of salmonids. The manual is intended for  use by designers of culverts including private landowners and engineers. The level of  expertise necessary to use this manual varies depending on site conditions and the design  option selected. For all but the no-slope design option (described below), it is assumed that  the designer has a basic background of hydraulic engineering, hydrology, and  soils/structural engineering to accomplish an appropriate design.  Formal fishways may be required at some culvert sites to provide passage. The design of  fishways is beyond the scope of this manual though there is a brief description of some  basic design concepts included here. A fish passage engineer should be consulted for  additional assistance for the design of fishways.

Keywords
: retrofitting; retrofit culvert; road; road crossing; culvert;  migration; salmonid; salmonid migration; slope; hydraulics; hydraulic engineering; hydrology; culvert hydraulics; soils engineering; structural engineering; fishway; formal fishway; fish passage; fishway design; culvert design

 

·   Bates, Ken and Powers, Pat.  1998.  Upstream passage of juvenile coho salmon through roughened culvertsIn  Jungwirth, Mathias, Schmutz, Stefan, and Weiss, Steven, Fish migration and fish bypasses.  Chapter 14.   192-202.

Abstract
: Roughened culverts were investigated for their use as upstream passage channels for juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch.  Fish passage success through corrugated culverts as a function of culvert roughness and culvert slope were evaluated based on swimming tests of coho salmon fry.  Fish consistently used the boundary layer of pipes when challenged with high velocities.  Moderate culvert-wall roughness enhanced fish passage by creating a boundary layer used by the fish.  Large corrugation roughness can create excess turbulence that prevents fish passage through the boundary regardless of the average water velocity within it.  Better models of turbulence and its relationship to fish passage are needed.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: coho; salmon; juvenile; migration; culvert; roughened culvert; upstream passage; fish passage; turbulence; model; boundary layer; corrugated culvert; water velocity; Oncorhynchus kisutch; juvenile coho salmon; culvert hydraulics; swimming performance; behavior; hydraulics

 

·   Beckers, Jos , Alila, Younes, and Mtiraoui, Ahmed.  2002.  On the Validity of the British Columbia Forest Practices Code Guidelines for Stream Culvert Discharge Design Canadian Journal of Forest Research .  32(4):684-692.

Abstract
:  In the stream culvert discharge design guidelines of the Forest Practices Code (FPC) of British Columbia (BC), the 100-year instantaneous flood (Q100) is assumed to be three times as large as the mean annual flood (Q2) regardless of basin characteristics and location in the province. A regional linear moment analysis of annual maximum flows is used to demonstrate that this assumption is invalid and that Q100/Q2 ratios vary substantially with basin area and climate. For the snowmelt-dominated peak flows in the Columbia and southern Rocky Mountains, Q100/Q2 decreases slightly with increasing drainage area, from 2.3 (1 km2) to 1.9 (100 km2). For the flood peaks generated by rainfall and rain on snow in coastal BC, this range is 3.12.6. In the semi-arid Interior Plateau region, variability in Q100/Q 2 ratios is most dramatic. For a 10-km2 basin, the calculated Q100/Q2 ratio of 4.9 is 1.6 times the assumed factor of 3, while for a 1-km2 basin Q100/Q2 is 7.5 or 2.5 times this factor. Underestimating Q100/Q2 may lead to underdesign and early failure of road culverts, and therefore, current FPC guidelines for estimating the 100-year instantaneous flood may have serious adverse economic and environmental consequences in small Interior Plateau watersheds. (Authorís Abstract)

Keywords:
stream culvert discharge design; flood; British Columbia; hydrology; culvert; regional

 

·   Behlke, C., Kane, D., McLean, R. F., and Travis, M. D.  1993.  Economic culvert design using fish swimming energy and power capabilitiesFish passage policy and technology.  Portland, Oregon. Bates, K.   95-100 pages.

Abstract
: Utilizing fish swimming power and energy capabilities and the hydraulic   properties of culverts in those locations within culverts where fish actually swim, the writers   have prepared a detailed manual of culvert design procedures for culverts which must   provide safe passage of upstream moving, weak swimming fish (Behlke, Kane, McLean,   and Travis, 1991). The design procedures utilize hydraulic formulae for profile drag, non-Archimedean   buoyant forces, and virtual mass force to quantify the hydraulic conditions   within a culvert that the design fish can sustain without exhaustion for various time   durations. Final culvert design may then be selected on economic or other bases from the   full range of trail designs that are hydraulically suitable for fish passage. This paper   provides an overview of the analytical and biological methods used in the preparation of the   design procedures and its associated software. (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: fish swimming power; fish energy capabilities; hydraulics; culvert hydraulics; culvert design; weak swimming fish; non-Archemedean buoyant force; culvert; fish passage; software; virtual mass force; upstream; safe passage; hydraulics; locomotion

 

·   Behlke, C. E.  1987.  Hydraulic relationships between swimming fish and water flowing in culverts.  Cold regions environmental engineering: proceedings of the second international conference: Edmonton, Alberta, 23-24 March 1987.

Abstract
: Proper passage of fish through culverts is an important element of design of highways, railroads and pipelines for the North.  Though several investigators have attempted to define swimming capabilities of fish, it does not appear that the swimming requirements for fish to pass through culverts and other fish passage structures have been properly analyzed and defined. 
This paper defines and analyzes the forces which fish are confronted with in entering and passing through barrels of sloping culverts flowing full and as open channels.  The perched culvert receives particular analytical attention.  Power and total energy requirements are also defined and developed for fish passing through barrels of culverts.  The methods of analysis are general and can be utilized for analyses of fish passage swimming requirements through other types of fish passage facilities. 
Field observations of Arctic grayling , by the writer and others at Poplar Grove Creek, Alaska, are used as examples of potential validity of conclusions, suggested by the analytical developments of the paper.     (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: fish passage; culvert; culvert passage; highway design; railroad design; pipeline design; highway; railroad; pipeline; fish swimming requirement; fish swimming capability; swimming capability; culvert barrel; fish passage facility; Arctic grayling; Alaska; United States; fish passage swimming requirement; regional; locomotion

 

·   Behlke, Charles and Braley, W. A.  1993.  Fishpass: Alaska fish passage program for culvert analysis.  Version 1.0.

Abstract
: Welcome to FISHPASS.EXE.  FISHPASS provides the analytical capabilities to identify a culvert or parallel culverts that will pass weak swimming fish safely.  The design procedure utilizes hydraulic formulas for profile drag, non-Archimedean buoyant forces, and virtual mass force to quantify the hydraulic conditions within a culvert that weak swimming fish can sustain without exhaustion.     Before using FISHPASS.EXE, read and be thoroughly familiar with the "Fundamentals of Culvert Design for Passage of Weak Swimming Fish," (Behlke et al. 1991.  Alaska DOTPF Statewide Research Report Number FHWA-AK-RD-90-10).  The required software data inputs and design results only will make sense if you are familiar with the underlying theory, foundation, and assumptions it explains.  (Authors' introduction)

Keywords
: fish passage software; FISHPASS; culvert; culvert design; fish passage; weak swimming fish; swimming ability; Alaska; United States; locomotion; analysis and assessment

 

·   Behlke, Charles E., Kane, Douglas L., McLean, Robert F., Reynolds, James B., and Travis, Michael D.  1988.  Spawning migration of Arctic grayling through Poplar Grove Creek Culvert, Glennallen, Alaska, 1986.   Final Report.:  166 pages.

Abstract
: Specification of appropriate culvert design criteria for fish passage has been a source of considerable, long-standing controversy within the State of Alaska.  In an effort to resolve this issue, the Alaska Departments of Fish and Game and Transportation and Public Facilities chose the Poplar Grove Creek culvert crossing of the Richardson Highway located near Glennallen, Alaska, as a study site for a joint interagency fish pasage study.  During May 1986, the migration of Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) through the Poplar Grove Creek culvert was studied.  The highway culvert is 33.5 m (110 ft) long and 1.5 m (5 ft) in diameter.  Under some flow conditions, the culvert's water velocities (particularly at the culvert inlet and outlet) have exceeded that reported as the sustained swimming speed of Arctic grayling.  The purpose of this study was to document the conditions that permitted or prevented Arctic grayling passage through the culvert and to recommend guidelines for fish passage thorugh this and other culverts.
 Successful fish passage through the culvert ranged form 12% to 79% at mean culvert outlet velocities of 1.94 m/s to 1.81 m/s (6.35 fps to 5.94 fps) and water temperatures fo 2.4įC to 7.1įC, respectively.  Weighted average water velociteis for the entire length of the culvert barrel ranged from 0.91 m/s to 0.79 m/s (2.98 fps to 2.59 fps), respectively, during this period.  Water velocities near the culvert wall (the area actually utilized by fish awhile ascending the culvert barrel) ranged from 0.77 m/s to 0.73 m/s (2.53 fps to 2.4 fps), respectively, during this period.  Radio telemetry techniques for monitoring fish movements through culverts were assessed and proved useful.  Stream hydrology, culvert hydraulics, water quality, and temperature and fish sexual maturity data were collected and related to observed swimming performance.  Velocity distribution profiles were measured to further evaluate the "V-occupied zone" concept (the zone used by fish during culvert passage.) 
Previous fish passage studies have largely recognized only a fish's profile drag as a deterrent to its passage through a hydraulic structure.  Accordingly, previous investigations have focused on water velocities that fish may successfully ascend for fixed time periods.  As a departure from most previous fish passage studies, this investigation considers the concept that fish may successfully ascend for fixed time periods.  As a departure from most pevious fish passage studies, this investigation considers the concept that fish may also have to contend with adverse horizontal pressure gradient and virtual mass forces. Such adverse forces at the culvert inlet or outlet may restrict or block fish passage, even in the presence of otherwise acceptable water velocities in the culvert barrel.  This study thus recommends that future design criteria specifically consider and address the distinctly different power and energy requirements for fish in the culvert inlet, outlet, and barrel.  A preliminary evaluation of the power and energy requirements for selected fish which successfully negotiated the Poplar Grove Creek culvert in 1986 is presented.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: fish passage; culvert; Alaska; United States; Arctic grayling; spawning migration; fish passage design criteria; culvert design criteria; interagency fish passage study; Thymallus arcticus; sustained swimming speed; sustained swimming speed of Arctic grayling;  flow; flow condition; water velocity; fish passage guideline; culvert barrel; culvert hydraulics; stream hydrology; water quality; radio-telemetry; temperature; fish movement; fish sexual maturity; V-occupied zone; recommendation; fish's profile drag; horizontal pressure gradient; virtual mass force; culvert inlet; culvert outlet; regional; locomotion; hydraulics; culvert

 

·   Beschta, R. L.  1984.  Road drainage structures: culvert sizing at stream crossings.  Corvallis, Oregon.   1-28 pages.

Abstract
: Drainage structures are an important aspect in the design and maintenance of   forest road systems. Culvert sizing at stream crossings involves several important   variables, including: 1) peak flow estimation and associated recurrence interval as peak   flows are of greater importance in culvert sizing than is the total volume or duration of flow,   2) design life of structure, and 3) risk of failure during design life.   Three general types of methods for instantaneous peak flow associated with a given   recurrence interval are: 1) local evidence, 2) empirical formulas, and 3) flood frequency   analysis. An example of the empirical method is the use of Talbot's formula to directly   relate drainage area to culvert size. The type and size of the culvert is usually determined   by the characteristics of the inlet. Other design considerations include gradient   recommendations, alignment to streams, organic debris, installation guidelines, fish   passage, and flow capacity requirements.   Risk of failure over the design life of the culvert needs to be specified so as to be   incorporated into the design of the culvert. This can be accomplished by first determining   the design life of the culvert and the recurrence interval of a design flow that a culvert can   sustain without failure. Data in tabular format illustrating the associated probability of   failure for a culvert installation once the above decisions are made is included in an   appendix. Local site characteristics often require an increase in designed capacity to   minimize the potential for failure.

Keywords
: road drainage structure; road; drainage; culvert; culvert sizing; forest road system; forest road; inlet; stream crossing; stream; peak flow estimation ; design life; gradient; culvert installation; fish passage; flow capacity requirement; organic debris

 

·   Browning, Mark C.  1990.  Oregon culvert fish passage survey.  Vancouver, Washington.  Western Federal Lands Highway Division, Federal Highway Administration.

Abstract
: This report presents the findings from a fish passage survey conducted on various types of highway culverts.  The survey includes 39 culverts located throughout the state of Oregon.  To simplify the findings, the report places the 39 Oregon culverts into four categories: (1) pipes and pipe-arches with no special provisions for fish passage, (2) pipes and pipe-arches with special provisions for fish passage, (3) pipes and pipe-arches with natural stream beds, and (4) arches.  Based upon the survey, the report concludes that culverts with natural stream bed surfaces provide the best facilities for passing fish.  The report, also, presents procedures and criteria for designing and installing highway culverts that must pass fish.  From the presented survey findings and the recommended design and installation methods contained in the report, the reader should, therefore, be able to resolve most problems associated with designing and installing highway culverts to pass fish.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: culvert; highway; highway culvert; Oregon; United States; pipe; pipe-arch; arch; natural stream bed; fish passage; culvert design criteria; culvert installation criteria; solution; regional; culvert

 

·   Butler, M.   1986.  PEAK/RISK/CULVERT: a program to compute peak flows, hydrologic risk, and circular culvert sizes at forest road crossings.  Roseburg, Oregon.  U.S. BLM, Roseburg District Office.:  1-37 pages.

Abstract
: Describes the use of a BASIC computer program to aid the hydrologist (and   other specialists involved in water projects) in the calculation of design peak flows,   evaluation of hydraulic risk, and selection of circular culverts. The program is written for   the sizing of circular culverts at forest road crossings, but may be extended to other   applications such as bridges, watershed management projects, and other areas where the   calculation of design events and hydrologic risk is needed. A discussion of each subject   is included in the text, with instructions on how to use the program. Example problems are   used to illustrate the program.   The peak flow portion may be adapted to other locations were regional flood frequency   equations have been developed. The computational methods are described briefly. For a   more detailed discussion, consult the references cited. (Author's abstract)   Peak flow estimators which utilize regression equations for estimating peak flows at   ungaged stations are the U.S. Geological Survey Method and Water Resources Research   Institute (WRRI). Hydrologic risk is defined as the probability that one or more events will   exceed a given flood magnitude within a specified period of years. The BASIC program   calculates culvert diameter by the equation D = (Q/Cq)2/5 where D is the pipe diameter in   feet, Q is discharge in cfs and Cq is a discharge coefficient, given in the paper.

Keywords
: computer program; software; hydrologist; water project; peak flow; design peak flow; evaluation of hydraulic risk; circular culvert; culvert; culvert sizing; circular culvert sizing; bridge; watershed; watershed management project; hydrologic risk; flood magnitude; culvert diameter; discharge; discharge coefficient; analysis and assessment; hydrology

 

·   California Department of Forestry.  1983.  Suggested culvert sizing procedures [for 50-year storm].  Sacramento, CA.  California Department of Forestry.

Abstract
: Determining the proper size culvert under forest practice rules requires estimating the volume of runoff from a '50-year storm' and calculating the size of culvert which will handle that volume of runoff. Several methods are available for determining the anticipated streamflow from a 50-year storm. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages under certain conditions. No one method is best in all situations, and all methods, to some degree, require an evaluation of local conditions to arrive at a reasonable estimate of the flow volume. Most methods use some form of data averaging, subjective estimates of combined factors, or a simplification of complex processes which reduces the precision of the results. At best they are all approximations of the real world. Five most frequently used methods for predicting stream-flow runoff are presented; rational, California nomograph, magnitude and frequency, SCS curve number, and slope-area method. Procedures, advantages and disadvantages, data needed and examples are given for each method. A culvert sizing technique is included

Keywords
: culvert design; runoff; streamflow; culvert ; hydrology

 

·   Campbell, Alan J., Sidle, Roy C., and Froehlich, Henry A.  1982.  Prediction of peak flows for culvert design on small watersheds in Oregon.  Corvallis, OR.  Oregon State University, Water Resources Research Institute.

Abstract
: Forest engineers must frequently make flood frequency estimates for very small watersheds when designing culvert installations. Empirical formulae and simplified rainfall runoff models, the most commonly used techniques to predict floods from very small watersheds, require considerable engineering judgment to give reasonable results. As an alternative to such methods, this study presents equations to predict peak flows on small watersheds in Oregon. The equations were developed from 80 watersheds ranging in size from 0.21 to 10.60 square miles. Oregon was divided into six physiographic regions based on previous flood frequency studies. In each region, annual peak flow data from gagging stations with more than 20 years of record were analyzed using four flood frequency distributions (Gumbel, two-parameter log- normal, three-parameter log-normal, log Pearson type III). The log Pearson type III distribution was found to be suitable for use in all regions of the state, based on the chi-square goodness of fit test. Flood magnitudes having recurrence intervals of 10, 25, 50, and 100 years were related to physical and climatic indices of drainage basins by multiple regression analysis. Drainage basin area (A) was the most important variable in explaining the variation of flood peaks (Qt) in all regions. Mean basin elevation (E) and mean annual precipitation (P) were also significantly related to flood peaks in two regions in western Oregon. Average percent error for all developed regression equations ranged from 16.1 to 64.1 percent, the smaller errors being associated with the more humid regions. Confidence limits developed for the regression equations provide the engineer with estimates of prediction uncertainties over the range of design flows. These prediction equations provide a better basis for culvert design on small forested watersheds than rules of thumb or empirical models

Keywords
: flood estimation and control; culvert design; culvert installation; prediction; watershed; regional; culvert; hydrology

 

·   Carter, B. and Hodkins, G.  2001. Unpublished work.  Watershed drainage.

Abstract
: Based on a 1981 U.S. Water Resources Council study current methods to predict peak flows for small drainage   watersheds are grossly inaccurate. When current methods were compared to actual gauged ( true) flows errors   ranging from 55% to 75% four underestimation and 105% to 310% overestimation were determined. Clearly this   could lead to under- and over- sizing culverts. The costs associated with materials is significant. However the cost   associated with flood event damage can be enormous. This study will gage 30 diverse watersheds geographically   spread across the state. Peak flow data will be compared to current prediction methods and results analyzed. This   three year study will provide an indication of the accuracy of the models.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: drainage; water supply and distribution structure; water resource; watershed; drainage; culvert; model basin; peak discharge; flow; research project; hydrology; regional

 

·   Center for Transportation and the Environment.  2002.  Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings.  North Carolina State University.:  39 pages.

Abstract
: This search is in response to a request for research in progress on aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings.   The areas covered include stream simulation, culvert hydraulics, aquatic organism movement or migration, baffles,   fishways, culvert or stream crossing design, and fish passage performance standards. The results of the search are   divided into sections on hydrology, culverts, habitat and fish passage.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: hydrology; culvert; habitat; fish passage; website; database; culvert hydraulics; road-stream crossing; migration; aquatic organism movement; fish movement;  baffle; fishway; stream crossing; stream crossing design; fish passage ; fish passage performance standards; aquatic organism; fish; road; stream; transportation; environment; hydraulics

 

·   Cotterell, Elizabeth.  1998.  Fish passage in streams.  Brisbane, Queensland.  Queensland Department of Primary Industries, GPO Box 46, Brisbane, QLD 4001.:  42 pages.

Abstract
: While there has been concern over the effects of dams and weirs on fish movements, simple structures such as road or rail crossings (which are not licensed under the Fisheries Act 1994) can also have significant effects.  A poorly designed or installed culvert can affect the fish stocks of an entire drainage basin.  These Guidelines identify the potential effects that stream crossings have on fisheries resources, and recommend ways in which these effects can be mitigated.     The information in these Guidelines is provided following consultation with major client groups and research colleagues.  This information should be considered by those designing and /or constructing stream crossings so that the passage of native fish may be facilitated.  Further information on design, siting or maintenance of stream crossings, or about the fisheries resources of a specific area (e.g. where fish passage is an issue at all) may be obtained by contacting any of the regional DPI Fisheries offices listed in Appendix 1.  (adapted from Author's introduction)

Keywords
: Fisheris Act 1994 ; dam; weir; fish movement; road crossing; rail crossing; culvert installation; culvert; fish stock; drainage; drainage basin; basin; fisheries resources; stream crossing; culvert guideline; culvert hydraulics; culvert slope;  pipe culvert; fish mortality; water depth; velocity; width; bottom roughness; slope; fish passage; barrier

 

·   Cottman, N. H. and McKay, G. R.  1990.  Bridges and culverts reduced in size and cost by use of critical flow transitionsProceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers (London), Part 1: Design & Construction.  88:421-437.

Abstract
:  This Paper describes an innovative concept for designing channel transitions which will converge wide, shallow, sub-critical flows into high-velocity critical flows. The flows are then passed through deep, narrow throats that are cheaply culverted or bridged. The outflow is finally diverged, spread and decelerated before being passed downstreams with minimum head losses. These 'minimum energy' or 'maximum discharge' designs were first used in Australia in 1961. They offer a means of passing large flows through much smaller, more efficient and more economical culverts and bridges, without the considerable upstream afflux that is the bane of conventional hydraulic structures. The usual problems of erosion, siltation, debris and energy dissipation are discussed, and shown to be either absent or manageable. The concept is very useful in many instances, including that of increasing the capacity of many suitable floodpain bridges at minimal cost. Much experience is recorded, a worked example is presented, and both appropriate and unsuitable sites are described. (Edited author abstract) 6 Refs

Keywords:
bridge design; culvert design; flow capacity; flow velocity; cost and economics; channel; surface water; culvert; road; hydrology

 

·   Dane, B. G.  1978.  A review and resolution of fish passage problems at culvert sites in British Columbia.   Vancouver, B.C., Canada.  Department of Fisheries and Environment.   Fisheries and Marine Service Technical Report.:  1-126 pages.

Abstract
: Culverts can have a major impact upon anadromous fish populations by impeding   or preventing upstream migration. Often, a culvert may determine the extent of fish   utilization in a stream and, in an extreme situation, the presence of a culvert could exclude   all anadromous fish from a particular watershed. The success or failure of a fish in   migrating through a culvert depends upon the swimming ability of the fish and the hydraulic   conditions present at the site. In general, culverts represent a streamlined, hydraulically   efficient flow channel in which velocities are maximized and usually constant throughout   most of the culvert length. This feature is in stark contrast to a natural stream channel   which provides an endless variety of landscapes throughout its length ad width, thus   offering the fish a choice of routes that are suited to its swimming ability.   Through experimentation and observation, the swimming ability of salmon and steelhead   trout has been documented and from this it is possible to determine the hydraulic criteria   that must be satisfied at the site to ensure that free fish passage is maintained. However,   as a delay of as little as one day can have serious consequences for spawning fish, it is   important that the appropriate hydraulic criteria be maintained at the site throughout the   spawning migration period. This would normally require that detailed streamflow records in   the form of a hydrograph be studied and compared with the fish migration period to   determine the maximum and minimum discharges upon which to base fish passage design,   However, do to the lack of detailed streamflow records for small streams in British   Columbia, it is therefore, impractical to apply concise standards to fish passage design in   most situations and a more general system must be used.   The "Recommendations for Culvert Design" contained in this report are, therefore as et of   guidelines that, if incorporated into the culvert design, should result in a facility that will   permit the free passage of fish under most circumstances. In addition, the design of   auxiliary fish passage structures such as culvert baffles and tailwater control facilities are   discussed in some detail and exampled by drawings. Recommendations are also made for   the installation of culverts to avoid conflict with fish use in the stream during the   construction period. An outline of the procedure to follow for approval of the project prior   to commencement of the work is also included in the report.

Keywords
: culvert; fish passage; culvert passage; British Columbia; Vancouver; Canada; anadromous fish passage; anadromous fish population; upstream migration; barrier;  swimming ability; hydraulic condition; velocity; hydraulically efficient; salmon; steelhead; stream flow; stream; flow; hydrograph; spawning migration period; hydraulic criteria; tailwater control facility; barrier ; regional; culvert; locomotion

 

·   Dasika, B.   1995.  New Approach to Design of CulvertsJournal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.  121(3):261-264.

Abstract
:  The current procedures for the design of culverts are reviewed.  Experiments at LaTrobe University, Bendigo, Australia, indicated that the head-versus-discharge relation under inlet control is slightly different from what the design charts give.  New generalized relatioins between head water level and discharge are presented for inlet-control conditions after fitting the experimental data.  As the ratio of end depth to the critical depth varies with the slope of the culvert and the discharge, the practice of considering the critical depth should be viewed with coution.  The present investigation suggests that the head water depth required to pass a given discharge through a pipe culvert of a given size is much less when the pipe runs full with the tail water level at the top of the pipe at the exit than the head water level required to pass the same discharge under inlet condidtion.  It is therefore recommended that the culvert be designed to flow under outlet-control conditions with the tail water level coinciding with the top of the pipe.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords:
culvert; flow rate

 

·   Donahue, John P. and Howard, Andrew F.  1987.  Hydraulic design of culverts on forest roadsCanadian Journal of Forest Research.  17:1545-1551.

Abstract
:  Design of drainage structures is an important part of planning forest roads, which usually includes culverts. Determining the appropriate pipe size for a given site involves estimation of expected flows and evaluation of the hydraulic performance of pipes of different sizes. In this paper a review of the hydraulic relationships applicable to the evaluation of pipe hydraulics is presented. A computer model is introduced that incorporates these relationships. The model is used to compare two algorithms for computing headwater depths, given inlet control (supercritical flow). The relative efficiency of four inlet types was also investigated. Results indicate that potential cost savings exist by altering inlet geometry and that computer-   assisted design can facilitate accommodations of conflicting design goals. (A)

Keywords:
hydraulics; road design and construction; forest road ; culvert design; modeling; drainage structure ; culvert; research methodology; road

 

·   El-Sawy, K. M.  2003.  Three-Dimensional Modeling of Soil-Steel Culverts under the Effect of TruckloadsThin-Walled Structures.  41(8):747-768.

Abstract
Soil-steel culverts have been successfully used as a cheap alternative to the conventional steel or reinforced/pre-stressed concrete bridges. Current design codes and researchers usually approximate the effect of live loads on such soil-steel culverts. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) analyses of two existing soil-steel culverts are performed and compared to the published theoretical and experimental results. The study shows that the results of the 3D FE analyses for the thrusts compare well with the experimentally measured ones with differences less than 30%. On the other hand, the FE results for bending moments show less agreement which may be due to the sensitivity of the bending moments to the accurate modeling of the properties of the soil material. The study also shows that the effect of the live loads extends for a very limited longitudinal length of the examined corrugated steel culverts and validates the use long prismatic longitudinal geometry in performing their 3D FE analysis. (Authorís Abstract)
Keywords:
soil-steel culverts; finite element method; live loads; three dimensional; culvert

 

·   Engel, P.  1974.  Fish passage facilities for culverts of the MacKenzie highway.  Burlington, Ontario, Canada.  Department of the Environment, Hydraulics Division, Canada Centre for Inland Waters.:  1-33 pages.

Abstract
: Most stream crossings on the Mackenzie Highway will be made using large culverts. In many of these culverts, the velocities will be too high for fish migration. A   model of a culvert of circular cross-section was constructed to design and test devices   which will provide regions of low currents so that the fish can travel upstream during the   spawning run. Care was taken to keep the losses as low as possible. Three different   design of fish passage facilities were developed, called Spoilers, Offset Baffles, and Side   Baffles. Each design has been recommended for a specific range of flow depth and   culvert slope. The effectiveness of all three design is inversely proportional to culvert   slope. The maximum recommended slope is 5%. Suggestions for application of the fish   passage facilities to elliptical and arch culverts are also made. Minor problems are   expected with debris and sediment. Ice problems could be serious in the Side Baffles and   some further consideration of this problem may be necessary. (Author's abstract).

Keywords
: stream; stream crossing; culvert; large culvert; water velocity; fish migration; spawning fish; upstream spawning migration; upstream migration; fish passage; fish passage facility; spoiler; offset baffle; side baffle; flow; flow depth; culvert slope; culvert design; elliptical culvert; arch culvert; debris; sediment; ice problem; culvert; hydraulics; behavior; barrier remediation

 

·   Genskow, John R.  1995.  Fish passage in urban streamsProceedings of the 22nd annual conference: Integrated water resources planning for the 21st century.  Cambridge, MA.  Editor Domenica, Michael F.  New York.

Abstract
: This paper discusses fish passage criteria for culverts and how these criteria were applied to planning a culvert rehabilitation project along an urban creek. It also discusses how fisheries issues impact urban 'in-stream' drainage system maintenance and facility rehabilitation projects. (A)

Keywords
: fish passage; fish; culvert fish passage; culvert design; culvert; habitat type

 

·   Hager, Willi H. and Del Guidice, Guiseppe.  1998.  Generalized Culvert Design DiagramJournal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.  124(5):271-274.

Abstract
:  The features of culvert flow in a basic arrangement are highlighted.  Four fundamental flow types may be identified, namely critical flow, uniform flow, gated flow, and pressurized flow.  A generalized design diagram is presented for the circular barrel that gives the possible transitions between the various flow types.  Further, the lengths of free surface flows with a central pressurized flow portion are determined as a function of the pipe Froude number.  Photographs of model tests illustrate complex flow patterns that may occur even in a simple culvert arrangemnet.  Of farticular relevance are chcoling conditions and fearures of two-phase flow in a culvert.  The effects of friction coefficient, bottom slope, relative pipe length and upstream head are detailed for free culvert outlet conditions.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords:
critical flow; uniform; flow; gated flow; pressurized flow; culvert ; hydraulics

 

·         Hetherington, E. D.  1974.  The 25-year storm and culvert size: a critical appraisal.  Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.  Pacific Forest Research Centre, Canadian Forestry Service.:  1-28 pages.

Abstract
: The British Columbia Forest Service Coastal Logging Guidelines, recognizing   that adequately sized culverts at stream crossings are essential for stream protection and   maintenance of good road conditions, specify that culverts be designed to handle the 25-year   storm. Because of insufficient precipitation and small-stream flow data, realistic   evaluation of 25-year storm flows is severely restricted in most parts of the province.   Hence, adherence to this guideline is problematical at the present time. The main purpose   of this report is to outline the problems and severe limitations associated with evaluating 25-year   frequency peak flows by indirect methods. The concepts of return period and risk   are reviewed to clarify what is meant by the phrase "25-year peak flow." Regional   differences in peak flow generation processes are then outlined to indicate the need for   different types of data and analytical procedures. A number of techniques for evaluating   peak flows are described in detail to illustrate the extent and significance of data limitations,   to provide some insight into the techniques themselves, and to point out relevant reference   material. A second objective is to place the role computed 25-year peak flow values in   perspective. Once a design peak flow has been determined, an appropriate culvert size   must be selected. Risk of culvert plugging and changes in runoff following logging are   additional factors to be considered. Suggestions for selecting safety factors are offered   and recommendations are made concerning collection and analysis of required   precipitation and streamflow data. (Author's summary)

Keywords
: storm; 25-year storm; culvert size; culvert;  British Columbia; Canada ; British Columbia Forest Service Coastal Logging Guidelines; Canadian Forestry Service; stream; stream crossing; stream protection; road maintenance; road; culvert design; stream flow; flow; 25-year storm flow; return period; 25-year peak flow; peak flow; culvert plugging; storm risk; runoff; logging; precipitation; culvert;  regional; hydrology

 

·   Hotchkiss, Rollin.  2001. Unpublished work.  Broken-back culvert.

Abstract
: The Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR) uses a unique kind of culvert termed broken back in situations of steep   topography where excavation costs would be very high to install a traditional culvert. The researchers developed a   computer software called Broken-Back Culvert Analysis Program (BCAP) to evaluate the hydraulic performance of   these culverts. However, 4%-5% of the time when extreme conditions are being evaluated, an error occurs. This   supplement would be to debug the program, periodically upgrade it and provide maintenance.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: culvert; topography; excavation; cost; software; computer; hill; research project; broken back culvert; analysis and assessment; regional

 

·   Jones, J. S.  1999. Unpublished work.  Hydraulics of slope-tapered concrete pipe culverts.

Abstract
: The objective of this research project is to verify the hydraulic design details of slope tapered pipe culverts. The   results of the research show that both the slope tapered inlet configuration and the typical precast concrete pipe   apron (IDOT) Standard Road Plant RF-3) are more hydraulically efficient than assumed. Also, in the slope taper   section, the number of reducer sections required in IDOT' s design guidelines can be decreased by one reducer   without adversely affecting hydraulic efficiency of the inlet. In general, the research verified assumptions in IDOT's   design guidelines for slope tapered concrete culverts.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: concrete pipe; culvert; hydraulic structure; slope; research project; hydrology; hydraulics

 

·   Jordan, Mark C. and Carlson, Robert F.  1987.  Design of depressed invert culverts.  Fairbanks, Alaska.  Water Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska-Fairbanks.   Final Report.:  71 pages.

Abstract
: This report discusses the hydraulic performance of depressed invert culverts with inlet control and set flush to a vertical headwall.  The models presented in this report may be used to calculate hydraulic capacity, barrel losses and velocity profiles within the culvert.  However, the designer must keep in mind that the models are based on specific conditions that may not be applicable to all situations.  Additional research should be conducted with different culvert inlet configurations, outlet control conditions and culvert bed materials typical of what is used in Alaska in order to refine the presented modeling.     Research is currently being conducted on the swimming abilities of fish passing through culverts.  This research, in conjuction with the ability to predict the hydraulic capacity and velocity profiles, will allow the designer to determine the suitability of a depressed invert culvert for fish passage.     (Author's implementation)

Keywords
: culvert; depressed invert culvert; culvert hydraulics; hydraulic capacity; model; barrel loss; velocity profile; culvert inlet configuration; outlet control condition; culvert bed material; Alaska; United States; fish passage; culvert passage; swimming ability; fish swimming ability; locomotion; hydraulics; culvert; regional

 

·   Kane, D. and Wellen, P. M.  1985.  Appendix to:a hydraulic evaluation of fish passage through roadway culverts in Alaska.  Fairbanks, Alaska.  Water Center/Institute of Northern Engineering.   Final.:  1-240

Abstract
: A culvert is a very simple hydraulic structure. However, because the engineer   must design for peak flows passing through the culvert while fish are trying to move   upstream serious problems arise. Almost all culvert installations in interior and northern   Alaska were casually examined, with approximately 100 examined in detail where hydraulic   problems existed that may retard fish passage. Data from the field program are included   in an appendix to this report. The two major hydraulic problems in regard to fish passage   were high velocities and perching: inlet drops caused by deposited sediment, aufeis,   alignment of culvert with stream, and non-uniform culvert slopes are some of the other fish   passage deterrents that were observed. Also, all known baffled structures were evaluated.   Numerous recommendations were made that should improve the hydraulic conditions that   exist at a culvert relative to fish passage. Also, it is recommended that further studies be   carried out to evaluate the swimming performance of the native fish. Present design   criteria are based on very limited studies. Lastly, it is recommended that the concept of   the velocity in the occupied zone (area in culvert where fish swim) be considered as the   culvert design velocity for fish passage in place of the previously used average cross-sectional   velocity. (Author's abstract)   The appendix includes field methods with data sheet example for determining prevailing   conditions at culvert sites regarding fish passage. Specific data for each site is given in   the form of plan view design, water velocity profile, photographs, narrative, and site   location. Approximately 100 sites are covered.

Keywords
: culvert; hydraulic structure; engineer; peak flow; flow; fish passage; fish; culvert passage; upstream migration; fish movement; culvert installation; Alaska; United States; hydraulic problem; culvert inlet; high velocity; perching; sediment; deposited sediment; aufeis; culvert alignment; stream; culvert slope; baffle; baffled structure; hydraulic condition; swimming performance; native fish; velocity; swimming performance of native fish; culvert design; culvert design criteria; cross-sectional velocity; field method; water velocity profile; regional; culvert; locomotion

 

·   Kane, Douglas L. and Wellen, Paula W.  1985.  Fish passage design criteria for culverts.  Fairbanks, Alaska.  Institute of Water Resources/Engineering Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks.

Abstract
: Ideally, culverts are designed to pass an instantaneous peak flow of a specified return period.  This design should not prevent fish from migrating upstream through the culvert.  When fish are delayed, it is desirable to keep this delay to a minimum to prevent harmful effects to the fish population.  The present design criterion assumes that fish can withstand some delays, but they must eventually be able to swim upstream through a culvert against the mean velocity that results from mean annual flood.  Theoretically, the return period for a mean annual flood is slightly greater than two years, while the design flow for a culvert may be 5, 10, 25 or even 50 years depending upon the type of structure.  We discuss the limitations of the above design criterion, particularly the methodology of using mean velocity.  We propose a more realistic approach using the velocity that exists in the occupied zone (the area of the culvert where fish generally swim when migrating upstream).  This zone is located along the outside boundary where the lowest velocities in the cross section are found.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: culvert; instantaneous peak flow; upstream migration; fish population; culvert design criteria; mean velocity; culvert passage; upstream culvert passage; mean annual flood; limitations of culvert design criteria; occupied zone; outside boundary; velocity; water velocity; hydrology; fish passage

 

·   Katopodis, Chris.  1993.  Fish passage at culvert highway crossingsHighways and the Environment.  Charlottetown.

Abstract
: Culverts, often used when highways cross rivers and streams, are usually designed to maintain fish migrations.  Fish, migrating upstream to spawn, feed or meet other life cycle requirements, provide challenges to culvert design and installation.  In many cases, ensuring no net loss of fish habitat is of prime concern.  New approaches to locating, designing and placing culverts have evolved to meet these challenges.  Frequently, culverts are placed below stream bed or special devices are attached to the culvert floor to aid fish passage.  Hydraulic design in these cases needs special attention.  Recent investigations, through hydraulic modelling, field observation and analysis of fish swimming speeds, provide ways to establish rational design procedures.  Hydraulic modelling results in several culvert fishways yield design curves for discharge, depth and velocities; fish swimming abilities and behaviour set limits for water velocities; fish migration timing combines with stream hydrology to guide the selection of design flows.  The issue of fish passage raises the environmental awareness of all concerned while providing them with the tools needed to address it.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: culvert ; highway; river; stream; fish migration; upstream migration; spawning; feeding; life cycle requirement; culvert design; culvert installation; fish habitat; fish passage; culvert hydraulics; hydraulics; hydraulic design; hydraulic modelling;  culvert fishway; discharge; depth; velocity; fish swimming ability; fish swimming behaviour; water velocity; stream hydrology; culvert; behavior

 

·   Keller, Gordon.  1983. Unpublished work.  Low water crossings (Selection, design, and construction of low water crossings).   24p.

Abstract
: Types of low water crossings are enumerated and described. Tradeoffs among culverts, bridges, and fords are described. Determination of design flows, culvert design, Manning's equation, scour conditions, and riprap design are briefly discussed. Bridge site examination form (R5-7700-71, rev 7/75), nomographs for computing flood discharge in California, solution of Manning's equation, headwater depth for CMP culverts and arch culverts, and a chart for size of stone that will resist displacement for various velocities and side slopes are included. A section on soil filter design is also attached. (C)

Keywords
: low water crossing; stream crossing; road; culvert;  hydraulics

 

·   King County.  1990.  Culvert and bridge design criteria.  In: King county surface water design manual.  4.3.5~1-4.3.5~16 pages.

Abstract
: Procedures are presented to provide for the analysis of both inlet and outlet   control conditions to determine which of those two conditions are governing flow capacity.   Design criteria for headwater elevation, inlet and outlet control of culvert flow are presented   in the form of lists. Tables of constants for control equations and nomographs for   headwater elevation for inlet or outlet control for use in flow analysis are included. Methods   of analysis required to provide for fish passage/migration are given in the form of criteria.   Estimating procedures for flow in ungaged streams and design criteria and analysis   methods for bridges are also included.

Keywords
: culvert; bridge; culvert design; bridge design; culvert inlet; culvert outlet; flow; culvert design criteria; flow capacity; fish passage; fish migration; stream; ungaged stream; culvert; roat; regional

 

·   Kuntze, E.   1982.  Northern Elbe culvertWater Science Technology.  114:263-268.

Abstract
:  The entire drainage system of Hamburg, Germany is being reorganized and renovated by the construction of large-diameter sewer pipes. Part of this scheme includes a culvert under the northern Elbe River. The problem is sedimentation of solid matter in a sewerage culvert in the presence of widely variable flows. The matching of the discharge cross section and the hydrograph curve of the discharge amount to assure minimal sedimentation could be achieved by a constantly changing profile geometry. The Elbe culvert will have an air cushion, created by pumping air into the culvert pipe between the bulkhead walls so that a large air pocket is formed over the entire length of the pipe. The discharge area can be varied by changing the air pocket, thus varying the flow speed and sedimentation rate. The Northern Elbe culvert will be opened for sewerage operation in the summer of 1981

Keywords:
drainage design; drainage; drainage crossing; culvert hydraulics; culvert;  hydraulics; regional

 

·   McClellan, T. J.  1970.  Fish passage through highway culverts.  Portland, Oregon.  U.S. Dep. Trans., Fed. Highw. Adm. and Oreg. State Game Comm.:  16 pages.

Abstract
: A review of 62 culverts installed by several agencies in Oregon was made (1) to determine effectiveness of installation to pass fish and (2) to evaluate which types were most effective, simplest to install, and least expensive to install and maintain.  Review included round pipe, single and double culverts with baffles or other special devices, plated arches (with both open and closed bottoms), and a few nonculvert installations.  The author concluded that stream condition at inlet and outlet may override design in importance.  Controlling factors for fish passage were velocity, length, slope, and headwater and tailwater conditions.  Description of culverts reviewed, problems, and comments on fish passage are given.  Evaluation forms with photographs are provided in the appendix. 

Keywords
: culvert evaluation form; culvert; culvert installation; Oregon; United States; fish passage; cost-analysis; culvert economics; round pipe culvert; single culvert; double culvert; baffle; plated arch; nonculvert installation; stream condition; inlet; outlet; culvert design; velocity; length; slope; headwater condition; tailwater condition; fish passage problem; regional

 

·   McGrath, T. J., Moore, I. D., Selig, E. T., Webb, M. C. , and Taleb, B.  2002.  Design Examples for Large-Span Culverts: Supporting Material for NCHRP Report 473.

Abstract
: Gives specific examples, with mathematical calculations, for design metal or concrete culverts of varying dimensions.

Keywords
: culvert; culvert design; metal culverts; concrete culverts; calculations

 

·   Metsker, H. E.  1970.  Fish versus culverts: Some considerations for resource managers.  Washington, D.C.  Technical Information Center, Division of Engineering, USDA Forest Service.   Technical report.:  1-19 pages.

Abstract
: A culvert designed to hydrologically and hydraulically pass the stream flow   through a fill may not be acceptable for fish passage. The most common culvert   installation practice is to reduce the channel cross sectional area, effectively decreasing   the channel width resulting in an increase in velocity through the channel. Fishery   restriction problems may come from the wall effect, water turbulence, inadequate stimulus   to the fish or outfall barriers. Manipulation of the channel for passing fish can be   accomplished by methods which raise the stream gradient necessary for fish passage.   Those methods may include the addition of downstream weirs, cribs or low head dams.   Stacked culverts in elevated stages may be used in streams that experience a wide flow   range. Place baffles in existing culverts to reduce velocities in the culvert and provide   resting areas for fish. The effects of light intensity changes that may cause a deterrent to   movements of fish populations may be reduced by planting riparian vegetation. In areas   with unstable stream beds it may become necessary to provide desilters, gradient control   structures, or a bedload catcher upstream from the culvert location. In addition, physical   requirements of fish habitat such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen and swimming   ability of the fish species of concern must be considered. Many of the recommendations to   facilitate fish passage may increase the total cost on new construction to the point that the   arch or bridge will be competitive.

Keywords
: culvert; culvert design; hydrology; hydraulics; culvert hydraulics; stream flow; flow; stream; fish; fish passage; culvert installation; velocity; channel; fishery restriction problem; wall effect; water turbulence; inadequate stimulus; outfall barrier; barrier; channel manipulation; stream gradient; weir; downstream weir; crib; lowhead dam; dam; stacked culvert; baffle; fish population; water temperature; fish habitat; habitat; bridge; arch; fish swimming ability; fish species; dissolved oxygen; light intensity; hydraulics; road; locomotion; culvert

 

·   Normann, Jerome M., Houghtalen, Robert J., and Johnson, William J.  1985.  Hydraulic design of highway culverts.  McLean, VA.  Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, Office of Implementation.   Hydraulic Design Series .  5

Abstract
: Hydraulic Design Series No. 5 combines culvert design information previously contained in Hydraulic Engineering Circular (HEC) No. 5, No. 10, and No. 13 with hydrologic, storage routing, and special culvert design information. The result is a comprehensive culvert design publication. Hydrologic analysis methods are described, and references cited. Culvert design methods are presented for both conventional culverts and culverts with inlet improvements. Storage routing techniques are included which permit the designer to account for ponding effects upstream of the culvert. Unique culvert applications, erosion and sediment control, debris control, structural aspects, and long span culverts are discussed and references cited. Inlet control, outlet control, and critical depth design charts, many of which are newly developed, are included for a variety of culvert sizes, shapes, and materials. New dimensionless culvert design charts are provided for the design of culverts lacking conventional design nomographs and charts. The appendices of the publication contain the equations and methodology used to construct the design charts, information of the hydraulic resistance of culverts, and methods of optimizing culvert design using performance curves and inlet depression. Calculation forms are provided for most of the design methodologies in the manual.(A)

Keywords
: hydraulic design; culvert - highway; hydrologic analysis; culvert design; hydrologic design; culvert

 

·   Piehl, Bradley T., Beschta, Robert L., and Pyles, Marvin R.  1988.  Ditch-relief culverts and low-volume forest roads in the Oregon Coast RangeNorthwest Science.  62:91-98.

Abstract
:  Drainage systems associated with gravel-surfaced roads often rely on culverts for moving water through the road prism and for minimizing onsite erosion. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics and functional capabilities of ditch relief culverts (DRC's) in the Coast Range of western Oregon. Five hundred and fifteen DRC's were evaluated to determine diameter and length, spacing, inlet conditions, skew angle, slope, and outlet erosion. Most DRC's (86%) were corrugated steel pipe. Pipe diameters were typically 38.1 or 45.7 cm (15 or 18 in.); average length was 10.7 m (35.1 ft.). Cross- sectional area of 74 percent of the inlets had been reduced by sediment deposition, pipe damage, cutbank sloughing, or organic debris; the inlet area of all DRC culverts averaged 81 percent of original. Spacing of DRC's varied by ownership category, with averages of 2.6 to 5.2 DRC's per km (4.2 to 8.4 per mi). Ditch erosion was minimal except with relatively long culvert spacing. Erosion at culvert outlets increased with culvert spacing

Keywords:
drainage crossing; drainage structure; gravel road; ditch-relief culvert; culvert design; road drainage;  regional; road; culvert

 

·   Piehl, Bradley T., Pyles, Marvin R., and Beschta, Robert L.  1988.  Flow capacity of culverts on Oregon Coast Range forest roadsWater Resources Bulletin.  24(3):-631-637.

Abstract
:  One hundred twenty-eight stream-crossing culverts in the central Oregon Coast Range were evaluated for peak flow capacity and were compared with current design guidelines. Their ability to pass the 25-year peak flow, as mandated by Oregon State Forest Practice Rules, and their maximum flow capacity were determined. Over 40 percent of the culverts were unable to pass the 25-year peak flow at a headwater to diameter ratio of 1. About 17 percent could not pass the 25-year peak flow without headwater overtopping the roadfill. Installing the next larger pipe size at an additional original installation cost of about 14 percent would have allowed nearly all these culverts to pass the 25-year peak flow. Culvert capacity varied with ownership and watershed size. (A)

Keywords:
flow capacity; forest road; culvert installation; regional; hydrology; culvert; legal and regulatory

 

·   Powers, Patrick D. P. E.  1996.  Culvert hydraulics related to upstream juvenile salmon passage.  Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, Habitat Program.   Draft Report.

Abstract
: A study was performed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) to determine the culvert characteristics that allow upstream passage of juvenile coho salmon.  The purpose of the study was to investigate the premise that small fish (60 to 90 mm fork length) would use the low velocity boundary layer near the wall of a roughened pipe to pass upstream.     The study objectives were to 1) determine if fish would use the low velocity boundary layer of a roughened pipe to pass upstream and compare this to passage through a smooth pipe, and 2) explore relationships between velocities and turbulence in the boundary layer to passage success.  Once the hydraulic conditions which provide optimal passage are determined, a hydrologic analysis for determining passage design flows for juvenile fish will be initiated by WDFW.     The tests consisted of placing the fish in culverts with roughness and slope.  Fish were counted as they passed, held or failed.  To meet the first objective, upstream passage success was compared to the maximum velocity (Vmax) in the culvert.  For the second objective, two variables were compared to passage success; 1) the velocity in the zone the fish occupied while attempting to pass (Vocc), and 2) the effective width in the boundary layer of the migration area (We).  A simple linear regression model relating Vmax to percent passage showed that velocities for the 80 percent passage level were 1.3 and 2.0 feet per second (fps) for the coho fry and fingerlings respectively.  A major finding of the study was that turbulence in the boundary layer actually created a blockage to fish.  For the tests with higher velocities, passage success was higher for the smooth pipe.  (Author's introduction)

Keywords
: culvert characteristic; culvert; culvert hydraulics; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; Washington; United States; Washington Department of Transportation; upstream passage of juvenile coho salmon; juvenile coho salmon; coho salmon; salmon; coho fry; fingerling; fry; coho fingerling; smooth pipe; rough pipe; low velocity boundary layer; turbulence; hydrologic analysis; velocity; boundary layer; fish passage test; fish passage; hydraulics; culvert

 

·   Pyles, Marvin R., Skaugset, Arne E., and Warhol, Terry.  1989.  Culvert design and performance on forest roadsImplementing Techniques for Successful Forest Operations. Annual Meeting, Council on Forest Engineering.  Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.   82-87 pages .

Abstract
: Culvert design requires consideration of hydraulics, hydrology, fisheries, economics, and legal requirements.  Surveys of culvert installations in the Coast and Cascade Ranges of Oregon show that a majority of culvert installations have adequate capacity to meet legal and reasonable design standards.  However, no common design standard was apparent, and 15 to 25 percent of the culvert installations surveyed appeared unable to meet Oregon Forest Practice Regulations as they were designed.  Further, reduced capacity due to inlet damage or partial plugging affected about half of the culverts surveyed.  Care in design should be taken in the future to insure that culverts remain an available alternative for stream crossings.  (Author's abstract0

Keywords
: stream-crossing; low volume road; watershed; culvert; culvert hydraulics; culvert design; hydraulics; hydrology; fishery; economics; legal requirement; culvert installation; Oregon; Coast Range; Cascade Range; United States; Oregon Forest Practice Regulation; partial plugging; inlet damage; reduced capacity; forest road; culvert performance; road-stream crossing; culvert; regional

 

·   Rooseboom, A.  1985.  Practical culvert hydraulics: a South African perspectivePapers presented at the 2nd international conference on the hydraulics of floods & flood control.  Cambridge, England.  Cranfield, England.

Abstract
: Culverts and stormwater drains are common and relatively costly items in street and road drainage. They are often designed by persons who are not specialists in hydraulics. The result is that many of these elements are improperly designed. This paper presents a flexible system which has been developed for determining the design flood return period. It also includes a simplified system for performing practical design calculations. These calculations relate to culvert sizing, increasing the capacity of culvert barrels, outlet velocities and erosion protection measures downstream. (A) 4 refs

Keywords
: hydraulics; culvert design; road drainage; surface drainage; culvert; regional

 

·   Saltzman, William and Koski, R. O.  1971.  Fish passage through culverts.  Salem, OR.  Oregon State Game Comission.

Abstract
: A series of culvert velocity curves has been developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Engineering Section of the Oregon Game Commission. The curves predict water velocities encountered at different water levels in round corrugated steel culverts from two to seven feet in diameter and on gradients from 0.25 to 5.0 percent. Maximum allowable velocities for fish passage are combined with the rating curves to give design criteria for fish passage. Fish passage design criteria for other methods of stream crossing techniques including pipe-arch culverts and box- type concrete culverts are mentioned

Keywords
: fish passage; culvert design; culvert fish passage; flow velocity; fishway; stream crossing design; hydrology; culvert

 

·   Simon, A. L. , Sarikelle, S., and Korom, S. F.  1987.   Internal energy dissipators for culverts on steep slopes with inlet controlTransportation Research Record.  1151:25-31.

Abstract
:  Results of a model study of internal energy dissipators for culverts on a steep slope and operating under inlet control are discussed. The shortest ring chamber design that effectively reduces the outlet velocity is provided. Ring chamber diameters are expressed as a function of the upstream Froude number. Spacing and dimensions of roughness elements are related to ring chamber diameter. The model results are compared with prototype performance and adjusted to improve their accuracy. Hydraulic design parameters that affect the operation of such culverts are discussed, and practical design procedures are given. (A). 10 Refs

Keywords:
baffle; steep slopes and road grades; culvert inlet; culvert design; culvert

 

·   Stoeckeler, J. H.  1967.  Size and placement of metal culverts critical on Peatland Woods roads.

Abstract
: Culverts too small in diameter or poorly placed were major causes of timber flooding and tree damage.  Placement problems were poor culvert slope, poor hydraulic approach, lack of gravel bedding, and too little soil covering the culverts.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: culvert; culvert diameter; culvert design; timber flooding; tree damage; culvert slope; culvert hydraulics; gravel bedding; culvert size; culvert placement; metal culvert; road

 

·   Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A.  1993.  Necessity of sediment transport calculations in culvert design.  Hydrologic and hydraulic methods committee of the floodplain management association.:  22 pages.

Abstract
: Sediment transport calculations are necessary when designing road-crossing culverts in ephemeral alluvial streams.  Significant road and adjacent property flooding is possible due to culvert underdesign, in cases where sediment transport is not taken into account, i.e., the culvert is designed for clear water flow.  In such cases, sediment supplied to the culvert by the stream may reduce its capacity as a result of sediment deposition within the culvert.  In addition to flooding problems, sediment deposition in a culvert is a continuous maintenance problem for public agencies.  Most times it is more economic to do a complete sediment transport study before the project is built.  A complete case study is presented herein, where the actual capacity  of a culvert was found to be approximately 20% of the presumed design capacity, as a result of sediment deposition not accounted in the design.  Analysis guidelines for proper culvert design are also presented.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: culvert; culvert design; sediment transport; sediment transport calculation; road-crossing culvert; ephemeral alluvial stream; stream; road; flooding; sediment deposition; hydrology; hydraulics; floodplain management; culvert; water quality

 

·   Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A.  1995.  Effects of sediment on drainage-culvert serviceabilityJournal of Performance of Constructed Facilities.  9:172-183.

 Abstract
:  The primary function of a drainage culvert--to convey the design flow effectively--is often greatly impaired or completely lost due to the presence of deposited sediments. The effect of sediments on the total head loss within the culvert may be quite significant. A case study is presented that describes the performance of a roadway drainage culvert designed for clear- water flow conditions in an alluvial stream carrying sediments. The actual capacity of the culvert is approximately only 20% of the presumed design capacity, as a result of sediment deposition not accounted for in the design. The case study reviews design errors and demonstrates the necessity of sediment-transport calculations when designing roadway drainage culverts in ephemeral alluvial streams. Ignoring sediment transport may have adverse effects, including significant road and adjacent-property flooding as well as continuous and costly maintenance problems. It is more economical to undertake a complete sediment-transport study before design than to deal with continuous maintenance after the project is built. (A, 16 references)

Keywords:
sedimentation; drainage crossing; culvert design; flow capacity;  culvert analysis; culvert design; water quality; culvert

 

·   Tung, Yeou-Koung and Bao, Yixing.  1990.  Optimal design of highway drainage structuresHydraulic engineering: Proceedings of the 1990 national conference, part 1 (of 2).  San Diego, CA.  Boston, MA.

Abstract
: Hydraulic design of a bridge or culvert using a risk-based approach is to choose among the alternatives the one associated with the least total expected cost. In this paper, the risk-based design procedure is applied to pipe culvert design. The effect of the hydrologic uncertainties such as sample size and type of distribution model on the optimal culvert design parameters including design return period and total expected cost are examined in this paper. (A) 7 Refs

Keywords
: drainage structure; drainage crossing; highway construction; risk analysis and design; bridge design; culvert design; culvert; road; analysis and assessment

 

·   United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.  1975.  Making culverts good fish passage.  US Forest Service Equipment Development Center.   Equip. Tips.

Abstract
: Briefly reviews fish passage factors at culverts including water velocity, culvert   length and gradient, fish species, streambed conditions, and culvert design. References   that describe fish passage problems and solutions in detail are listed.

Keywords
: fish; fish passage; culvert; water velocity; velocity; culvert length; culvert gradient; fish species; streambed; streambed condtion; culvert design; fish passage problem; fish passage solution; hydrology

 

·   United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.  1976.  Roadway drainage; guide for installing culverts to accomodate fish.  Juneau, Alaska.  Engineering and Aviation Management Division, Forest Service.   Equip. Tips.:  1-126 pages.

Abstract
: The guide is designed as an aid to engineers, biologists, and hydrologists to help   solve the problem of providing fish passages through drainage structures. Decreasing   culvert gradients to meet fish passage requirements (velocities less than 1.5 feet per   second) also significantly reduces culvert capacity, requiring larger culverts, if designing   for both fish passage and design flows. Minimum flows for fish passage are based on the   5-year recurrence. Data requirements for drainage types define information needs. Aids   to the design procedure include survey forms, a method for risk assessement, procedures   for calculating design flows for southeast Alaska, hydraulic charts and culvert design   methods.Administrative Document.

Keywords
: culvert; biologist; engineering; hydrology; fish passage; drainage; drainage structure; culvert gradient; fish passage requirement; culvert capacity; design flow; flow; minimum flow; 5-year recurrence interval; Alaska; United States; hydraulic chart; culvert design; hydrology; regional; analysis and assessment

 

·   United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.  1978.  Fish/culvert roadway drainage guide.  USDA, Forest Service.   Draft.:  1-125 pages.

Abstract
: The guide is designed as an aid to engineers, biologists, and hydrologist to help   solve the problem of providing fish passages through drainage structures. Decreasing   culvert gradients to meet fish passage requirements (velocities less than 1.5 feet per   second) also significantly reduces culvert capacity, requiring larger culverts, if designing   for both fish passage and design flows. Minimum flows for fish passage are based on the   5-year recurrence interval. Data requirements for drainage types define information   needs. Aids to the design procedure include survey forms, a method for risk assessment,   procedures for calculating design flows for southeast Alaska, hydraulic charts, and culvert   design methods.

Keywords
: guide; engineering; biologist; hydrologist; fish passage; fish passage requirement; culvert gradient; drainage; 5-year recurrence interval; Alaska; United States; hydraulic chart; culvert design; culvert; hydrology; regional

 

·   United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.  1979.  Roadway drainage guide for installing culverts to accomodate fish.  Juneau, Alaska.  Engineering and Aviation Management Division.

Abstract
: The guide is designed as an aid to engineers, biologists, and hydrologists to help   solve the problem of providing fish passages through drainage structures. Decreasing   culvert gradients to meet fish passage requirements (velocities less than 1.5 feet per   second) also significantly reduces culvert capacity, requiring larger culverts, if designing   for both fish passage and design flows. Minimum flows for fish passage are based on the   5-year recurrence. Data requirements for drainage types define information needs. Aids   to the design procedure include survey forms, a method for risk assessement, procedures   for caluculating design flows for southeast Alaska, hydraulic charts and culvert design   methods.  (Administrative document)

Keywords
: fish passage; drainage structure; culvert gradient; 5-year recurrence; hydraulic charts; culvert design; fish capabilities; bridge; open-bottom arch; baffle; design flow; velocity; round-pipe arch metal culvert; culvert hydraulics; regional; hydraulics; culvert; hydrology

 

·   United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration and U.S.Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.  1996.  Fish passage through culverts.  Video Recording.  San Dimas, CA.  USDA Forest Service, Technology Development Center.

Abstract
: This video explains how a hydrologist, a fish biologist, and an engineer all play a crucial role in the designing of a roadway over a stream. It describes the types of culverts and some factors to look for in deciding the type to use. The video gives the advantages and disadvantages to both fish and engineers if the culvert is not maintained. The video is appropriate for all engineering and maintenance staff. See Baker and Votapka (1990) for a companion publication. (C)

Keywords
: fish passage; road design and construction; drainage crossing; culvert design; road; culvert

 

·   Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.  1999.  Fish passage design at road culverts: a design manual for fish passage at road crossings.

Abstract
: This manual is for the design of permanent new, retrofit, or replacement road crossing culverts that will not block the migration of salmonids. The manual is intended for use by designers of culverts including private landowners and engineers. The level of expertise necessary to use this manual varies depending on site conditions and the design option selected. For all but the no-slope design option (described below), it is assumed that the designer has a basic background of hydraulic engineering, hydrology, and soils/structural engineering to accomplish an appropriate design.    Formal fishways may be required at some culvert sites to provide passage. The design of fishways is beyond the scope of this manual though there is a brief description of some basic design concepts included here. A fish passage engineer should be consulted for additional assistance for the design of fishways.    The organization of the manual follows the logical steps expected in a prudent culvert design. A data form is provided in Appendix F describing the data needed for the design and for those evaluating the design. For explanations and definitions of terms describing the channel, hydrology and data requirements see the Explanation of Data also in Appendix F. Several case studies showing various culvert design options are described in Appendix G.    The manual is based on the premise that a culvert is the desired road crossing option at a site. That does not mean that for fish traffic, fish passage or other ecological functions, a culvert is the actually best solution or even permitted. Though this manual focuses on fish passage, there are other habitat and ecological considerations that are factors in the siting and design of road crossing structures. Those considerations are outlined in the section Other Passage and Habitat Considerations.    This manual does not provide guidance about the inventory of culverts or the prioritization of culvert barrier remedies. That information is included in Fish Passage Barrier Assessment and Prioritization Manual, 1998 by WDFW.  (Author's introduction)

Keywords
: fish passage; fish passage design; habitat; hydraulics; engineering; hydrology; culvert; retrofitting; salmonid; salmonid migration; fishway; manual; barrier; road crossing structure; road; culvert design

 

·   White, D.  1996.  Hydraulic performance of countersunk culverts in Oregon.  Master of Science thesis.  Oregon State University.  95 pages.

Abstract
: Countersunk culverts have long been recommended as crossing structures   where fish passage is desired. This project provides design and performance information   on existing countersunk culverts in Oregon. Twenty-eight countersunk culverts were   surveyed for three issues: assessment of the ability of countersunk culverts to provided for   passage of target species and age groups; evaluation of the stabily of the countersunk   configuration; and derivation and critical analysis of a method of predicting the extent of   low velocity zones within the flow cross-section. A qualitative assessment of each site   conducted in 1995 was followed up by a reassessment of culvert condtions after a large   20 year storm event in 1996. All twenty-eight culverts resisted erosion and effectivly   carried high discharges as determined from survey data. Detailed documentation of water   velocity distributions in several culverts under fall and winter discharges showed the   presence of zones of velocity of a mangitude currently acceptable in the literature as   passable by juvenile salmonids. Results of the velocity data analysis suggest that the extent   of low velocity zones, or perhaps the lower limit of their extent, in the channel cross-sections   of countersunk cluvert with small scale rougness may be predicatble using   common paramenters such as cross-sectional area and hydraulic depth.   Recommendations based on the study are: the use of multiple, parallel culverts in place of   a larger single culvert is discouraged except in special cases; countersink a culvert to allow   for natural downstream transport of sediment; the culvert barrel shoud be placed as   coincident with the direction of the incident streamflow as possible; and unless mitering is   necessary to enhance the conveyance capacity of the culvert, the inlet should not be   mitered.

Keywords
: culvert; countersunk culvert; Oregon; United States; fish passage; culvert passage; discharge; 20-year storm event; storm; sediment; parallel culvert; multiple culverts; culvert inlet; velocity; juvenile salmonid; erosion; low velocity zone; hydraulics

 

·   Wightman, J. C. and Taylor, G. D.  1976.  Salmonid swimming performance in relation to passage through culverts.  Victoria, British Columbia.  Fish Habitat Improvement Section, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Ministry of Recreation and Conservation.:  53 pages.

Abstract
: In order to establish standards for culvert design and installation to ensure fish   passage, a review of existing literature on fish swimming performance in culverts and in   conditions resembling those in culverts was undertaken.   Measured swimming abilities of game (mainly salmonids) and non-game fish species were   taken from many sources. Swimming capabilities at different life-history stages, under   various physical and chemical conditions were documented. Under proper stimulus   (undefined) adult salmon and steelhead (length 25-30 inches or 63.5-76.2 cm) have   traveled distances up to 100 feet (30.5 m) against water velocities near 27 fps (820   cm/sec). Normally adult salmon and large trout are capable of negotiating velocities of 12   fps (370 cm/sec) over shorter distances (20 ft or 6.1 m). To ensure fish passage through   a culvert water velocities should be much less than the sustained swimming speed of   upstreaming fish for a reasonable length of time. For salmonid under-yearlings this would   definitely be less than 1 fps (30 cm/sec) and nearer 0.5 fps (15 cm/sec). Some other   important factors affecting swimming performance include water temperature, dissolved   oxygen content and degree of previous exertion.   Poor design and /or installation of culverts can bring about problems of fish passage. One   poorly placed culvert could detrimentally affect fish populations of an entire drainage.   Accepted parameters governing successful fish passage are water velocity and depth   through the culvert, length and slope of the culvert, entrance and exit conditions (e.g.   jumping pool), and size species and sexual maturation of fish using the stream. Some   methods frequently employed to alleviate passage problems at culverts include baffles,   downstream controls and multiple installations. (based on Author's abstract)

Keywords
: countersunk culvert; culvert; swimming ability; salmonid; habitat; salmonid swimming performance; swimming performance; fish passage; culvert passage; culvert design; culvert installation; fish habitat improvement; physical condition; chemical condition; non-game fish species; life-history stage; steelhead; salmon; under-yearlings; water temperature; dissolved oxygen content; exertion; water velocity; depth; length; slope; sexual maturation; passage problem; baffle; downstream control; multiple installations; locomotion; culvert

 

·   Williams, T. T.  1971.  Drainage correlation research report, volumes I and II.  Montana State Highway Commission, Planning Survey Section.

Abstract
: An important problem in highway design is that of determining flow capacities for drainage structures including culverts. Culvert installations ordinarily are used where the discharge originates from small watersheds of a few acres or a few square miles. The determination of peak discharge magnitudes and corresponding return frequency intervals is essential to economical engineering design. A comprehensive study of peak flows from small watersheds (1 to 100 square miles) was undertaken in 1963 to determine if existing precipitation and climatological data could be used to predict the frequency of flood magnitudes on small watersheds in Montana. Phase one of the study focused on existing precipitation data to determine what correlation exists between such data and peak flows from small watersheds and included a review of various methods currently in use for the prediction of peak flows and frequencies. Phase two undertook to extend the usefulness of the U.S. Geological Survey 'Small-Area Peak-Flow-Highway Program by a comprehensive study of four widely separated watersheds. Included in the study were soils, infiltration, precipitation, and watershed characteristics. A review of current hydrologic techniques and watershed data appears in Volume II

Keywords
: road design and construction; flow capacity; drainage; culvert design; culvert installation; research; road; culvert

 

·   Ziemer, G. L.  1965.  Culvert design.  Alaska Dep. Fish and Game.:  2 pages

Abstract
: Standards for design and placement of culverts in salmon streams are presented; a graph shows swimming capability of migrating salmon related to the horizontal distance between resting pools and the velocity of the water in the culvert.

Keywords
: culvert design; culvert; culvert placement; culvert design criteria;  swimming capability; migratory salmon; swimming capability of migrating salmon; salmon; horizontal distance; resting pool; water velocity; culvert hydraulics; hydrology; locomotion