Road Construction

     ·    Aust, W. Michael, Visser, Rien, Gallagher, Tom, Roberts, Tal, and Poirot, Matt.  2003.  Cost of Six Different Stream Crossing Options in the Appalachian AreaSouthern Journal of Applied Forestry.  27(1):66-70.

Abstract
Permanent and temporary forest bridges are an integral part of achieving environmental Best Management Practices (BMPs) for harvesting operations. Within Virginia Techís Fishburn Forest, five stream crossings have been installed to improve access and to provide a demonstration area for continuing education purposes. Approximately 1 mile of abandoned road was re-opened and improved, and 850 tons of gravel used to form the new running surface. In addition to a number of existing fords, three new culvert crossings and five new bridges were installed. These include a 70 ft low-water concrete culvert crossing, a two-span 31 ft wooden stringer bridge, and three different types of stress-laminated bridges. This article provides basic information regarding permit acquisition and environmental considerations for stream crossings. Location, design, and installation procedures for a variety of permanent and temporary forest bridges are presented. Finally, an evaluation of bridge installation costs, including materials, labor, and machinery requirements, are shown for the various permanent and temporary crossing types. (Authorís Abstract)
Keywords:
Best Management Practices (BMSs); stream crossings; harvesting; culvert; bridge; cost ; road; analysis and assessment

 

     ·    Bramblett, R. , Wright, B. E., Bryant, M. D., and White, R.  Seasonal movements and distribution of juvenile steelhead and coho salmon in a southeastern Alaska drainage basinFrom the mountains to the sea: linked ecosystems.  Juneau, Alaska.

Abstract
: The early life history of steelhead in southeast Alaska is poorly understood. Earlier findings in the Staney   Creek basin on Prince of Wales Island suggested that low-order tributaries were important winter habitat.   We identified periods of immigration/emigration and residence of juvenile steelhead and coho salmon in two   low-order tributaries by intensive year-round monitoring with weirs. Distribution in the Staney Creek basin   was examined with spring, summer, and fall surveys at ten tributaries and ten reaches of Staney Creek.   Steelhead exhibited pronounced seasonal shifts in habitat use. In summer, juvenile steelhead were common   in reaches of main Staney Creek but rare in low-order tributaries. In October, large numbers of steel-head,   ages 0-4, entered low-order tributaries although some steelhead remained in Staney Creek. Juvenile   steelhead remained in low-order tributaries until April or May when they emigrated to the mainstem of   Staney Creek. In contrast, juvenile coho salmon remained common in low-order tributaries in summer,   although many juvenile coho salmon exhibited similar movement patterns to juvenile steelhead. Because   low-order tributaries are important habitat for juvenile steelhead and coho salmon, they must be protected   from potential impacts such as timber harvest and road building, and surveys for juvenile steelhead must be   appropriately scheduled.  (Author's abstract)

Keywords
: seasonal movement; seasonal distribution; juvenile steelhead; coho salmon; salmon; Alaska; United States; drainage basin; life history; steelhead; winter habitat; habitat; immigration; emigration; intensive year-round monitoring; weir; tributary; reach; seasonal shift in habitat use; juvenile coho salmon; timber harvest; road construction; regional; behavior; physiology; forest management; road

 

     ·    Bryant, Mason D.  1981.  Evaluation of a small diameter baffled culvert for passing juvenile salmonids.

Abstract
: A 90-cm-diameter culvert with off-set baffles was set at a 10 percent gradient in an artificial stream channel on Admiralty Island, Alaska. Coho salmon, Dolly Varden char, and cutthroat trout, all less than 120-mm fork length, were able to move up the 9-m culvert. Additional work is needed to determine an upper discharge limit and to evaluate field installations. (A)

Keywords
: baffle; fish passage; culvert installation; fish; fish habitat; culvert construction; road construction; forest; logging; salmonid; regional; barrier remediation;  road

 

     ·    Donahue, John P. and Howard, Andrew F.  1987.  Hydraulic design of culverts on forest roadsCanadian Journal of Forest Research.  17:1545-1551.

Abstract
:  Design of drainage structures is an important part of planning forest roads, which usually includes culverts. Determining the appropriate pipe size for a given site involves estimation of expected flows and evaluation of the hydraulic performance of pipes of different sizes. In this paper a review of the hydraulic relationships applicable to the evaluation of pipe hydraulics is presented. A computer model is introduced that incorporates these relationships. The model is used to compare two algorithms for computing headwater depths, given inlet control (supercritical flow). The relative efficiency of four inlet types was also investigated. Results indicate that potential cost savings exist by altering inlet geometry and that computer-   assisted design can facilitate accommodations of conflicting design goals. (A)

Keywords:
hydraulics; road design and construction; forest road ; culvert design; modeling; drainage structure ; culvert; research methodology; road

 

     ·    Dryden, R. L.  and Stein, J. N.  1975.  Guidelines for the protection of the fish resources of the Northwest Territories during highway construction and operation.  [Yellowknife, NT, CA?].  Department of the environment, Fisheries and Marine Service, Resource Impact Division, Resource Management Branch, Central Region.   Tech. Rep. Series .

Abstract
: Based on the results of fisheries investigations conducted between 1971 and 1974 guidelines have been designed to protect the fish resources of the Districts of Keewatin and Mackenzie, as well as Baffin and Southampton Islands, from major disruptions resulting from the construction and operation of highway and road systems. These guidelines are not intended to serve as regulations but merely as an aid in meeting Fisheries and Marine Service requirements, as defined by the Fisheries Act of Canada. Culvert average cross-sectional velocities must not exceed 0.9 m/s (3 fps) when fish passage is a requirement, unless it can be satisfactorily demonstrated that the culvert design includes a selected region wherein velocities are low enough to permit fish passage. This selected region must be continuous throughout the culvert length and of sufficient size to permit the fish to locate it and to swim through it. Alternatives such as baffles should be considered when these velocity criteria can not be met through regular design procedures. The minimum desirable water level within culverts during periods of fish movement should be 20.3 cm (8 inches). In general, no instream construction activity should be attempted from May 1 to June 30 and from September 1 to November 15, as these periods are considered critical to fish migrations and spawning. However, these dates vary slightly with geographical spread and variations in the timing of freeze-up and break-up. The spring or fall restrictions may be lifted if it can be satisfactorily demonstrated that fish spawning activities do not occur during either or both of these periods in the stream under consideration. Three days is considered the maximum time period during which blockage to annual spawning migrations can be tolerated without causing serious disruption to the spawning cycle. During this three day period, the above mentioned velocity criteria need not be adhered to. Variables such as the timing of fish migration and the timing and duration of peak flows will determine when this three day limitation should be in effect. The removal of stream gravel may seriously damage spawning habitat and therefore should not be attempted without first consultation with Fisheries and Marine service. Highway routing should avoid close proximity or paralleling of streams or water bodies, and should cross river systems as far upstream from the river mouth or as far downstream from a lake outlet as possible. Specific restrictions, other than those discussed within these guidelines, may have to be imposed where unique fish species or life history aspects are involved. Conversely, the guidelines may be tempered upon consideration of species composition or the individual characteristics of a stream system. Fisheries and Marine Service is available to provide advice and guidance with respect to the fisheries resource for any highway design for construction proposal in the Northwest Territories. (A)

Keywords
: highway construction; road design and construction; fish habitat; aquatic life; road; habitat

 

     ·    Eldin, Neil N.  2002.  Road Construction: Materials and MethodsJournal of Environmental Engineering .  128(5):423-430.

Abstract
:  This study was conducted to assess the effect of traditional and industrial waste materials approved for road construction on the surrounding environment and adjacent water bodies. A list of construction and maintenance materials was selected for this investigation based on their wide use and information extracted from their material safety datasheets. A toxicity-based approach was employed as an effective way of screening the toxicity of the selected materials. Toxicity tests using algae and Daphnia were conducted to determine the level of toxicity in water elutriates prepared from the selected materials that emulate storm water runoff. Many of the tested construction materials proved to be toxic to the test organisms. Heavy metals such as aluminum, arsenic, lead, and mercury and some hydrocarbon compounds present in test elutriates appeared to be major causes of toxicity. However, measured toxicity was significantly reduced or eliminated when elutriates were allowed to be in contact with selected soils. Under actual field conditions, mechanisms other than soil sorption such as volatilization, photolysis, and biodegradation are believed to further reduce the toxicity of storm water runoff.  (Authorís Abstract)

Keywords:
construction materials ; toxicity; highway construction; construction methods; road; water quality

 

     ·     Environmental Protection Agency, Arnold, Arnold and Associates, and Dames and Moore.  1975.  Logging roads and protection of water quality.  Seattle.  Environmental Protection Agency, Region X.

Abstract
: This report is a state-of-the art reference of methods, procedures and practices for including water quality consideration in the planning, design, construction, reconstruction, use and maintenance of logging roads. Most of the methodology also is applicable to other forest management roads. The report is divided into two parts. The first part provides general perspective on physical features and conditions in EPA Region X which are relevant to water quality protection and logging roads. The second part outlines specific methods, procedures, criteria and alternatives for reducing the degradation of water quality. Topic coverage in this part includes road planning, design, construction and maintenance including the use of chemicals on roads. Silvicultural activities are one category of water pollution from nonpoint sources described in public law 92-500. Of all silvicultural activities, logging roads have been identified as the principal source of man- caused sediment

Keywords
: drainage design; road drainage; water quality control; water quality; forest management; road

 

     ·    Gardner, R. B.  1979.  Some environmental and economic effects of alternative forest road designsTransactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.  22:63-68.

Abstract
:  Esthetic degradation and erosion constitute the major environmental impacts of forest roads. Recent observations from an experimental road in Montana showed that impacts are strongly related to road cross section width: cut slope, road surface and fill slope, and the attendant clearing. To reduce impacts, a single-lane road was constructed to carry all traffic, including log hauling. Hauling was simulated for 3 other road standards and compared with the experimental road. In this instance, where 6, 787 cu m (1.5-million board feet) of timber was harvested, the single-lane road was    probably the best choice. (Sims-ISWS)

Keywords:
cost and economics; road design and construction; erosion process; road

 

     ·    Hafterson, H. D.  1973.  Dip designField Notes.  5(10):-1-18.

Abstract
:  Draining water from the surface of unpaved roads before it destroys the riding surface or accumulates sufficient energy to damage the adjacent watershed is a familiar problem to designers of mountain roads. Often, when a dip is doing a good hydraulic job, it becomes so arrogant that it bounces the vehicle hard enough to rap the head of anyone driving over it. This paper presents a dip design technique which simultaneously satisfies these conflicting hydraulic and traffic requirements. A theoretical treatment is presented to develop a thorough understanding of the problem and to provide a basis for making the field measurements which are badly needed if this more rational design technique is to be used. So far. the technique has been used by basing the design on arbitrarily selected constants and has yielded results which are not too discouraging. It is hoped that this article will encourage readers to make the needed measurements and share their findings through the forum of FIELD NOTES. A wide cross section of opinion is needed, due to the somewhat subjective nature of the measurements. The problem on unpaved roads is to remove water from the road surface. This is difficult to do because traffic on muddy roads creates ruts which the water follows. Insloping or outsloping the road surface has been used with varying degrees of success, depending primarily on the rutting tendency of the road surface. Outsloping on soils which become slippery when wet has resulted in disfavor among road users who have slipped off the road. Various structures, such as open top culverts, do an excellent job when conditions are right' but siltation and high maintenance costs are common. Dips in the road profile provide an obvious solution, but, unfortunately, good hydraulic characteristics don't necessarily coincide with good driveability. Most dip designs sacrifice driveability by being too abrupt and are often too shallow to effectively divert water for very long. Dips, when first constructed, divert water from the road easily, but as traffic uses the wet road, ruts are formed which cut through the top of the dip. Effectiveness is further reduced by the mud ridges formed by mud squeezing out of the rut as wheels pass through. These mud ridges in the bottom of the dip act as lateral dikes to prevent water from leaving the ruts. A 3-inch-deep rut with 3-inch-high ridges is enough to cause failure of a typical 6- inch-deep dip. Gravel surfacing through the dip may be the answer to rutting, but often requires expensive maintenance and does not prevent failure caused by reduction of freeboard as sediment accumulates in the bottom of the dip. The solution is to build the dip with enough freeboard so that the rutting action can't cut through and so that there is sufficient sediment storage space to last between maintenance periods. Recalling the head bumping that occurs even on some of the shallow dips makes it obvious that new criteria are needed if dips are to be further deepened (C)

Keywords:
dips and waterbars; road design and construction; drainage structure; unpaved road; surface drainage; road surface; road

 

   ·    Hynson, James, Adamus, Paul, Tibbetts, Stephen, and Darnell, Rezneat.  1982.  Best management practices for building activities associated with the discharge of dredged or fill material.  Handbook for protection of fish and wildlife from construction of farm and forest roads.  Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

Abstract
: Section 404(f) of the Clean Water Act of 1977 exempts the construction or maintenance of farm and forest roads from the need for Section 404 permits providing that:   1.  They are not for the purpose of  bringing navigable waters into a new use or do not affect the flow or circulation or impair the reach of such areas; and    2.  They are constructed and maintained in accordance with best management practices to assure the flow and circulation patterns and chemical and biological characteristics of navigable waters are not impaired and that any adverse effect on the aquatic environment will be otherwise minimized. 
States assuming  Section 404 permitting responsibilities according to the Consolidated Permit Regulations (40 CFR 123) must include a description of acceptable best management practices (BMPs) for farm and forest roads in their program description.  This Handbook describes 54 BMPs that may be incorporated by State agencies into their program descriptions or utilized by Federal and State agencies and private developers in the review of project plans and in the planning, construction, and maintenance of specific projects.     Best management practices for planning road and facility layout and design, erosion control, construction and maintenance operations, and restoration to natural conditions, identified through existing State water quality management plans and management practices of Federal agencies, were evaluated as to their environmental, institutional, technical, and economic effectiveness.  Based on the results of the evaluation, BMPs were modified or augmented with other practices to enhance their overall effectiveness and to provide for protection and propagation of fish and wildlife resources.  A discussion of purpose, description, performance and limitations is provided for each BMP, and an approach is developed which guides Handbook users in the selection of BMPs applicable to site-specific situations.  (Authors' summary)

Keywords
: Clean Water Act 1977; road; farm road; forest road; navigable water; chemical; biological; aquatic environment; best management practice; road planning;  erosion control; road maintenance; road construction; restoration; environmental effectiveness; institutional effectiveness; technical effectiveness; economic effectiveness; fish; wildlife; protection; propagation; fish and wildlife resources; protection of fish and wildlife resources; site-specific situation; legal and regulatory; road

 

   ·    Motayed, Asok K., Chang, Fred M., and Mukherjee, Dipak K.  1983.  Design and construction of low water stream crossings, executive summary.  McLean, VA.  U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Research, Development, and Technology.

Abstract
: This report summarizes a study of low water crossings. The final outcome of the study was a two-volume report. The first volume contains the review and analysis of literature, case histories of several existing low-water stream crossing (LWSC) structures, and documents the research efforts undertaken. The second volume is a guide for the design of LWSCs. This executive summary breifly describes fords, vented fords, and low-water bridges. It also summarizes a decision methodology based on a risk-based design approach which considers least total expected cost, as well as intangible factors such as traffic stoppage, potential danger to life, loss of use of road for emergency purposes, effect on environment, as well as 'many other social, environmental, and legal aspects.' Criteria for selection of LWSCs are tabulated, as well as examples of warning signs. The report number for the full report is FHWA-RD-82-163. (C)

Keywords
: low water crossing; road design and construction; stream crossing design; road

 

   ·    Pence, Lester M. Jr.  1971.  A method of determining the construction grade in a road drainage dipField Notes.  3(3):-6-7.

Abstract
:  [In Region 8 some minimum-standard roads are designed and constructed with outsloped surfaces and Coweeta dips. A design using an outsloped roadway with dips reduces construction costs and is used in lieu of a design with normal drainage facilities (ditches and culverts). A design using dips requires the final road grade to vary from the normal design grade through the dip area. We considered ignoring these dips during design; however, this practice would waste the 113 cubic yards of earth excavated from each dip during construction. Wasting this amount of material would create too great an impact on the resources and environment adjacent to the roadway. Also, when the amount of earth from each dip is multiplied by the number of dips in a roadway, we saw that wasting this amount of material was uneconomical. Therefore, it was concluded that designs must consider these dips by including the material from each dip in the normal roadfill. When the road grade is modified to include the dips, the difference in elevation between the normal and modified grade line must be computed at each point where there are cross sections within the dip area. The new centerline elevation is used to properly place the road template on the cross section. A graphical method of determining these differences in grade line elevation is presented.] (3 figures, 1 example)

Keywords:
outsloping; road design and construction; dips and waterbars; road drainage; cost and economics; drainage structure; road

 

   ·    River Basin Planning Staff.  1985.  Water quality planning forest roads: special study No. 1B extension.  San Francisco.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.

Abstract
: The purpose of this study is to provide information on the effects of road construction and maintenance in or near forest stream and lake protection zones. The study had two major objectives: (1) to evaluate erosion and sedimentation effects of roads in or near the stream and lake protection zone (SPZ); and (b) to develop guidelines for road location, construction, and maintenance that are useful for general forest management and in the forest practice making process. The study was conducted in 39 areas in the Sacramento River Basin where logging roads were located near in SPZ's. Erosion was measured using a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and by physically measuring erosion that occurred within the road prism and estimating the percentage of that erosion which reached the stream as sediment. Macroinvertebrate benthic organisms were sampled and analyzed using the Cairns' Sequential Comparison Index (SCI), Euclidean Distance, and Shannon-Weaver Diversity techniques. Average erosion using USLE estimates was 11 tons/acre/year with an estimated 6 tons/acre/year reaching the stream as sediment. Actual soil loss measurements showed erosion to be about 80 tons/acre/year and sediment yield to be 50 tons/acre/year mostly form the roads. There was a weak correlation between erosion or sedimentation and any of the biological indicators. The high degree of variation in the amounts of sediment in the stream yielded widely varying responses in the benthic macro- invertebrate communities. In general, the sediment delivered to streams from roads and SPZ's, when those roads and SPZ's were built or maintained according to the Forest Practice Rules, seemed to have minimal impact on the streams benthic macroinvertebrate population

Keywords
: water quality; forest road; road construction effect; road design and construction; universal soil loss equation; erosion process; road

 

   ·    Rothwell, R. L.  1978.  Watershed management guidelines for logging and road construction in Alberta.

Abstract
: This report provides watershed management guidelines for logging and road construction to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and deterioration of water quality. The guidelines, which have been developed specifically for Alberta's foothills and mountainous region, are based on an extensive literature survey of research and practices in North America. Sections: introduction, erosion and watershed damage, watershed management guidelines for logging, watershed management guidelines for road construction (road gradient, road width, aspect, side-hill slopes, topography, geology and soils, stream protection, stream crossings, cuts and fills, drainage, subsurface drainage, berms, road maintenance). (4 appendices, 39 figures, 13 tables, glossary, references)

Keywords
: erosion control; water quality; logging practices and effects; road design and construction; handbook; road; forest management; regional

 

   ·    Sentar Consultants Ltd.  1995.  Fish habitat protection guidelines: road construction and stream crossings. Revised.  Saskatoon, Sask.  Sentar Consultants Ltd.

Abstract
: These guidelines are intended to eliminate or minimize the impact of stream crossings and road construction on adjacent lakes and streams in Saskatchewan. The guidelines first outline the legislation and policies relating to the construction of stream crossings and roads adjacent to water bodies in the province. The guidelines then examine the effects of stream crossings, sedimentation, and erosion on fish habitat and behavior. This is followed by topics specifically related to protection of fish habitat: Scheduling of construction activities to avoid conflicts with fish migration, spawning, and incubation periods; route planning to avoid conflicts with fish passage and habitat; reservation of undisturbed vegetation along edges of water bodies; design of bridges and culverts; installation of culverts and other crossings; stream crossing approaches; control of deleterious substances; road maintenance; decommissioning; and control of erosion and sedimentation. A glossary is included

Keywords
: fish habitat; road design and construction; stream crossing design; regional; road

 

   ·    Skaugset, A. E. and Pyles, Marvin R.  1991.  Peak flow estimation and streamflow simulation for small forested watershedsDesign and maintenance of forest road drainage.  Corvallis, OR.  Corvallis, OR.

Abstract
: The single piece of hydrologic information that is needed most often for adequate design and maintenance of forest roads is design peak flow estimates for stream crossings. Current forest road layout, especially in steep forest terrain, results in a large number of stream crossings of small, ungaged, forest streams. In the past, methods for estimating design peak flows for these streams included Talbot's formula, the Rational Method, or the SCS method. Because of the lack of applicability to forested streams the preceding methods are not recommended. A method for estimating peak flows in Oregon, Campbell's equations, which correlate peak flows for a given design return period with watershed characteristics, is recommended. For the above four methods; theory, formulas, rationale for use and drawbacks are presented. To estimate magnitude of intermediate flows for fish passage, the Antecedent Precipitation Index (ADI) which requires a record of precipitation intensity and watershed area, is recommended. The development and theory of flow frequency analysis using principles of statistical estimation to make inferences about the total population of streamflows from finite streamflow records is included along with examples

Keywords
: discharge; stream crossing; forest road; streamflow; watershed; hydrology; road

 

   ·    Stenmark, Christer.  1995.  Alternative road construction for stormwater management in cold climatesProceedings of the 1995 2nd NOVATECH conference on innovative technologies in urban storm drainage.  Lyon, France.

Abstract
: A field study of an infiltration and detention facility in northern Sweden is presented. Streets in a housing area were reconstructed to increase the permeable area. Permeable asphalt was used covering a coarse fill material and swales (ditches) were constructed along both sides of the streets. The project will include studies of the water balance during different seasons, frost heave and frost penetration of the streets and the storm water quality. Due to the reduced infiltration capacity during snowmelt periods, detailed studies will be performed on components of the facility that are important for the disposal of meltwater. Some initial tests of the infiltration capacity of permeable asphalt in cold temperatures indicated sufficient capacity during snowmelt periods (A). 8 Refs

Keywords
: road design and construction; storm flow response; cold region; infiltration; climate; road; regional

 

   ·    Swift, Lloyd W. Jr.  1985.  Forest road design to minimize erosion in the southern AppalachiansProceedings of forestry and water quality: a mid-South symposium.  Little Rock, AR.  Editor Blackmon, B. G.  Monticello, AR.

Abstract
: Excessive erosion and low serviceability of roads are continuing problems associated with forest management in the mountains of the Southeastern United States. Road and erosion research at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina dates from roadbank stabilization work in the 1930's. Emphasis has been to develop and demonstrate a low-cost, low-maintenance road design. Results cover such features as: drainage and the broad- based dip, cut-bank design and stabilization, roadbed surfacing, brush barriers and filter strips, culvert sizing, and transportation planning. Application of knowledge gained permits roads to be built and maintained at lower cost while providing practical control of sediment input to streams

Keywords
: forest road; road design and construction; erosion control; cut slope; road; regional

 

   ·    Tew, Howard C., Price, Lane C., and Swift, Lloyd W. Jr.  1985.  The layman's guide to private access road construction in the southern Appalachian Mountains.  Waynesville, NC.  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.

Abstract
: This fully illustrated booklet guides the farmer, home owner, summer home developer, contractor or real estate agent through the planning, design, construciton and maintenance stages for a good access road. Standards include the broad-based dip and other options options based upon Coweeta forest access road demonstrations

Keywords
: dips and waterbars; road design and construction; road; regional

 

   ·    Trombulak, Stephen C. and Frissell, Christopher A.  2000.  Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic CommunitiesConservation Biology .  14(1):18-30.

Abstract
Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes. We reviewed the scientific literature on the ecological effects of roads and found support for the general conclusion that they are associated with negative effects on biotic integrity in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Roads of all kinds have seven general effects: mortality from road construction, mortality from collision with vehicles, modification of animal behavior, alteration of the physical environment, alteration of the chemical environment, spread of exotics, and increased use of areas by humans. Road construction kills sessile and slow-moving organisms, injures organisms adjacent to a road, and alters physical conditions beneath a road. Vehicle collisions affect the demography of many species, both vertebrates and invertebrates; mitigation measures to reduce roadkill have been only partly successful. Roads alter animal behavior by causing changes in home ranges, movement, reproductive success, escape response, and physiological state. Roads change soil density, temperature, soil water content, light levels, dust, surface waters, patterns of runoff, and sedimenttation, as well as adding heavy metals (especially lead), salts, organic molecules, ozone, and nutrients to roadside environments. Roads promote the dispersal of exotic species by altering habitats, stressing native species, and providing movement corridors. Roads also promote increased hunting, fishing, passive harassment of animals, and landscape modifications. Not all species and ecosystems are equally affected by roads, but overall the presence of roads is highly correlated with changes in species composition, population sizes, and hydrologic and geomorphic processes that shape aquatic and riparian systems. More experimental research is needed to complement post-hoc correlative studies. Our review underscores the importance to conservation of avoiding construction of new roads in roadless or sparsely roaded areas and of removal or restoration of existing roads to benefit both terrestrial and aquatic biota. (Authorís Abstract)
Keywords:
road; terrestrial ecosystems; aquatic ecosystems; mortality; construction; collision; road as barrier; road effects; barrier

 

   ·    United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration and U.S.Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.  1996.  Fish passage through culverts.  Video Recording.  San Dimas, CA.  USDA Forest Service, Technology Development Center.

Abstract
: This video explains how a hydrologist, a fish biologist, and an engineer all play a crucial role in the designing of a roadway over a stream. It describes the types of culverts and some factors to look for in deciding the type to use. The video gives the advantages and disadvantages to both fish and engineers if the culvert is not maintained. The video is appropriate for all engineering and maintenance staff. See Baker and Votapka (1990) for a companion publication. (C)

Keywords
: fish passage; road design and construction; drainage crossing; culvert design; road; culvert

 

   ·     Washington State Department of Natural Resources and Washington State Department of Ecology.  1982.  Handbook for forest roads.  N. Manchester, Indiana.  The Heckman Bindery, Inc.:  79 pages.

 Abstract
: Logging road construction, use, and maintenance can cause soil erosion and stream sedimentation problems.  The problems include damage to natural resources such as water, soils, and  fisheries, and damage to man-made improvements such as fish hatcheries, resource agencies show that erosion associated with logging roads causes a large part of sedimentation problems.  This is especially true when Washington Forest Practices Regulations are not followed. 
Both public and private forest landowners have long recognized that good road construction and maintenance techniques reduce erosion and the quantity of sediment that enters streams.  However, some good techniques are not being used when they should.  This is partly due to a lack of published information in a form that is handy for the landowner, engineer, and operator.     This handbook describes methods that have been used to reduce erosion.  The most appropriate method for a particular situation must be based on specific on-site conditions, available equipment, weather, and the natural resources and manmade improvements being protected.  Remember that these methods are offered as suggestions, and are not regulations. 
Three assumptions guided the preparation of this handbook:
1.  Road construction, use, and maintenance are essential for management of forest lands.   2.  Proper location, design, construction, and maintenance of roads will reduce erosion   3.  Protection of public resources and the soil is the responsibility of all forest landowners and operators
The handbook describes methods to reduce erosion from:
A.  Unstable areas and erodible soils   B. Drainage structures       1.  Ditches       2.  Culverts       3.  Bridges       4.  Water Bars       5.  Fords   C.  Road Surfaces   D.  Cut Slopes, Fill Slopes and Sidecast   E.  Inactive and Abandoned Roads
This handbook is designed for easy updating.  As better methods of road construction, maintenance and spoils management are developed the information can be inserted in the book.  (Author's introduction)

Keywords
: handbook; road construction; road maintenance; spoils management; logging road construction; drainage structure; ditch; culvert; bridge; water bar; ford; road surface; cut slope; fill slope; sidecast; road; erosion; soil erosion; stream; stream sedimentation; sedimentation; fish hatchery; Washington Forest Practices Regulation; man-made improvement; forest land management; forest; forest land; road design; soil; public resource; road; forest management; water quailty

 

   ·     Washington State Department of Transportation.  1997.  Hydraulics manual.  Engineering Publications, Washington State Department of Transportation, P.O. Box 47408, Olympia, WA 98504-7408.:  316 pages.

Abstract
: The purpose of this manual is to provide detailed information on the subjects of hydrologic and hydraulic analysis related to highway design. This manual should be used in conjunction with the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Highway Runoff   Manual and the WSDOT Design Manual, specifically Section 1210.

Keywords
: highway; road; highway design; culvert; hydrology; hydraulics; culvert hydraulics; runoff; culvert design; storm frequency; channel; fish passage; pipe material; storm drain; hydraulics

 

   ·    Weaver, W. E. and Hagans, D. K.  1994.  Handbook for forest and ranch roads: a guide for planning, designing, constructing, reconstructing, maintaining and closing wildland roads.  161 pages.

Abstract
: The handbook is a practical guide and field manual designed to cover the   fundamentals of road planning, design, construction, reconstruction, maintenance and   closure. The book is organized by these topics in the general order encountered in the   road building process. It is assumed that the users of the handbook have a basic   understanding of road terms and roading practices. A glossary of defined terms and   references are included as appendices.   Culvert design information is covered in the chapter on road drainage and includes legal   requirements in California, stream crossing design choices, fish passage criteria, debris   control, culvert installation techniques, maintenance, and culvert removal in road closure.   Planned useful life of a road is given in the form of risk analysis for failure of culverts   designed for the 50 year flood flow event. A procedure for determining the correct length   of culvert needed for stream crossings of ditch relief drains is outlined in an appendix.

Keywords
: handbook; guide; field manual; road; road planning; road design; road construction ; road reconstruction; road maintenance; road closure; roading practice; culvert; culvert design; California; United States; ditch relief; culvert installation; culvert installation technique; culvert maintenance; culvert removal; risk analysis; 50-year flood flow event; ditch relief drain; stream; stream crossing; culvert; road

 

   ·    Webb, Bill.  1994.  Deep Creek low water crossing Osceola National ForestField Notes.  26(May-August):3-6.

Abstract
:  The reasons and design rationale for a low water stream crossing on the Osceola NF in Florida are given. Cost tradeoffs between a bridge and the low water crossing are given. Design, construction, initial performance and some benefits of the design are briefly described. Five 8-foot wide, 16-foot long by 24-inch deep double 'T' precast sections were used as the main structural elements of the crossing. It was built during a 2-month period in 1992 for a contract cost of less than $60,000. (C)

Keywords:
low water crossing; road design and construction; road; regional; analysis and assessment

 

  ·    Williams, T. T.  1971.  Drainage correlation research report, volumes I and II.  Montana State Highway Commission, Planning Survey Section.

Abstract
: An important problem in highway design is that of determining flow capacities for drainage structures including culverts. Culvert installations ordinarily are used where the discharge originates from small watersheds of a few acres or a few square miles. The determination of peak discharge magnitudes and corresponding return frequency intervals is essential to economical engineering design. A comprehensive study of peak flows from small watersheds (1 to 100 square miles) was undertaken in 1963 to determine if existing precipitation and climatological data could be used to predict the frequency of flood magnitudes on small watersheds in Montana. Phase one of the study focused on existing precipitation data to determine what correlation exists between such data and peak flows from small watersheds and included a review of various methods currently in use for the prediction of peak flows and frequencies. Phase two undertook to extend the usefulness of the U.S. Geological Survey 'Small-Area Peak-Flow-Highway Program by a comprehensive study of four widely separated watersheds. Included in the study were soils, infiltration, precipitation, and watershed characteristics. A review of current hydrologic techniques and watershed data appears in Volume II

Keywords
: road design and construction; flow capacity; drainage; culvert design; culvert installation; research; road; culvert